Chapter 15.pdf - Hannah Springer AP U.S. History per.1...

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Hannah SpringerAP U.S. Historyper.111/17/15Reconstruction 1863-1877:Constitutional concepts of limited government and states’ rights discouraged national leaders from taking bold action. Littleeconomic help was given to either whites or blacks in the South, because most Americans believed that free people in a free societyhad both an opportunity and a responsibility to provide for themselves. The physical rebuilding of the South was largely left up to thestates and individuals, while the federal government concentrated on political issues.Issues to resolve after the Civil WarA.Reconstruction plans of Lincoln and Johnson-Abraham Lincoln held firmly to the belief that the southern states couldnot constitutionally leave the Union and therefore never did leave.After Lincoln’s assassination, Andrew Johnsonattempted to carry out Lincoln’s plan for the political Reconstruction of the 11 former states of the Confederacy.1.Lincoln’s policies-During the war years, Lincoln hoped that the southern states could be reestablished bymeeting a minimum test of political loyalty.Proclamation of Amnesty and reconstruction 1863-Lincoln set up an apparently simpleprocess for politicalReconstruction for reconstructing the state governments in the South so that Unionists were in charge ratherthan secessionists. The president’s Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction provided for Full presidentialpardons would be granted to most southerners who took an oath of allegiance to the Union and the U.S.Constitution and accepted the emancipation of slaves. It also provided that A state government could bereestablished and accepted as legitimate by the U.S. president as soon as at least 10 percent of the voters inthat state took the loyalty oath. Lincoln’s proclamation meant that each southern state would be required torewrite its state constitution to eliminate the existence of slavery.Wade-Davis Bill 1864-Many Republicans in Congress objected to Lincoln’s 10 percent plan, arguing that itwould allow a supposedly reconstructed state government to fall under the domination of disloyal secessionists.In 1864 Congress passed the Wade-Davis Bill, which proposed far more demanding and stringent terms forReconstruction. The bill required 50 percent of the voters of a state to take a loyalty oath and permitted onlynon-Confederates to vote for a new state constitution. However, Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket-vetoing itafter Congress adjourned.Freedmen’s Bureau-Congress created an important new agency called the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen,and Abandoned Lands, better known simply as the Freedmen’s Bureau. The bureau acted as a kind of earlywelfare agency, providing food, shelter, and medical aid for those made destitute by the war. The bureau’sgreatest success was in education.

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Abraham Lincoln, Reconstruction, Test, American Civil War, Southern United States, Ulysses S Grant, Reconstruction era of the United States

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