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Unformatted text preview: Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. Global Issues for Global Citizens An Introduction to Key Development Challenges Edited by Vinay Bhargava <i>Global Issues for Global Citizens : An Introduction to Key Development Challenges</i>, edited by Vinay K. Bhargava, World Bank Publications, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, . Created from ashford-ebooks on 2019-05-20 21:43:52. Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. <i>Global Issues for Global Citizens : An Introduction to Key Development Challenges</i>, edited by Vinay K. Bhargava, World Bank Publications, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, . Created from ashford-ebooks on 2019-05-20 21:43:52. GLOBAL ISSUES Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. for GLOBAL CITIZENS <i>Global Issues for Global Citizens : An Introduction to Key Development Challenges</i>, edited by Vinay K. Bhargava, World Bank Publications, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, . Created from ashford-ebooks on 2019-05-20 21:43:52. Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. <i>Global Issues for Global Citizens : An Introduction to Key Development Challenges</i>, edited by Vinay K. Bhargava, World Bank Publications, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, . Created from ashford-ebooks on 2019-05-20 21:43:52. GLOBAL ISSUES f or GLOBAL CITIZENS Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. AN INTRODUCTION TO KEY DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES Vinay Bhargava, Editor THE WORLD BANK Washington, D.C. <i>Global Issues for Global Citizens : An Introduction to Key Development Challenges</i>, edited by Vinay K. Bhargava, World Bank Publications, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, . Created from ashford-ebooks on 2019-05-20 21:43:52. © 2006 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street NW Washington, DC 20433 Telephone: 202-473-1000 Internet: E-mail: [email protected] All rights reserved 1 2 3 4 09 08 07 06 This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgement on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. Rights and Permissions The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all of this work without permission may be a violation of applicable law. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally grant permission to reproduce portions of the work promptly. For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request with complete information to the Copyright Clearance Center Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA; telephone: 978-750-8400; fax: 978-750-4470; Internet: . All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the Office of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: 202-522-2422; e-mail: [email protected] ISBN-10: 0-8213-6731-5 ISBN-13: 978-0-8213-6731-5 eISBN-10: 0-8213-6732-3 eISBN-13: 978-0-8213-6732-2 DOI: 10.1596/ 978-0-8213-6731-5 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publications data has been applied for. <i>Global Issues for Global Citizens : An Introduction to Key Development Challenges</i>, edited by Vinay K. Bhargava, World Bank Publications, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, . Created from ashford-ebooks on 2019-05-20 21:43:52. Contents FOREWORD by Paul Wolfowitz PREFACE xiii xv ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ABBREVIATIONS xix xxv xxvii 1 INTRODUCTION TO GLOBAL ISSUES by Vinay Bhargava 1 Part One: The Global Economy 29 Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. 2 POVERTY AND INEQUALITY by Punam Chuhan 31 3 THE SEARCH FOR STABILITY IN AN INTEGRATED GLOBAL FINANCIAL SYSTEM by Stijn Claessens 51 4 DEVELOPMENT AID: KEY TO BALANCED GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT by Punam Chuhan and Vinay Bhargava 71 5 DEBT RELIEF, DEBT SUSTAINABILITY, AND GROWTH IN LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES by Sona Varma 91 v <i>Global Issues for Global Citizens : An Introduction to Key Development Challenges</i>, edited by Vinay K. Bhargava, World Bank Publications, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, . Created from ashford-ebooks on 2019-05-20 21:43:52. vi Contents 6 GLOBALIZING WITH THEIR FEET: THE OPPORTUNITIES AND COSTS OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION 105 by Ian Goldin 7 TRADE REFORM AND THE DOHA DEVELOPMENT AGENDA 123 by Kym Anderson and John D. Nash 8 THE CHALLENGE OF FOOD SECURITY: STRATEGIES TO REDUCE GLOBAL HUNGER AND MALNUTRITION 145 by Kevin Cleaver, Nwanze Okidegbe, and Erwin De Nys Part Two: Human Development 165 9 Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. DISEASES WITHOUT BORDERS: COPING WITH COMMUNICABLE DISEASE 167 by Jayshree Balachander 10 SECURING THE FUTURE THROUGH EDUCATION: A TIDE TO LIFT ALL BOATS 187 by Ruth Kagia 11 HUNGER, MALNUTRITION, AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 201 by Meera Shekar and Yi-Kyoung Lee Part Three: Environment and Natural Resources 217 12 CONFRONTING CLIMATE CHANGE 219 by Ian Noble and Robert T. Watson <i>Global Issues for Global Citizens : An Introduction to Key Development Challenges</i>, edited by Vinay K. Bhargava, World Bank Publications, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, . Created from ashford-ebooks on 2019-05-20 21:43:52. Contents 13 TOWARD A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FUTURE 245 by Jamal Saghir and Kyran O’Sullivan 14 CALMING GLOBAL WATERS: MANAGING A FINITE RESOURCE IN A GROWING WORLD 265 by Claudia Sadoff, Karin Kemper, and David Grey 15 TOWARD SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WORLD FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE 285 by Kieran Kelleher and Michael L. Weber 16 SUSTAINING THE WORLD’S FORESTS: MANAGING COMPETING DEMANDS FOR A VITAL RESOURCE by the World Bank Environmentally and Socially Sustainable 305 Development Forests Team Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. Part Four: Global Governance 325 17 DEVELOPMENT IN THE CROSSFIRE: CONFLICT PREVENTION AND POSTCONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION 327 by Kazuhide Kuroda 18 CURING THE CANCER OF CORRUPTION 341 by Vinay Bhargava 19 THE UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SYSTEM: AN ORGANIZATION IN THE MIDST OF CHANGE 371 by Oscar Avalle and Gaspard Curioni <i>Global Issues for Global Citizens : An Introduction to Key Development Challenges</i>, edited by Vinay K. Bhargava, World Bank Publications, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, . Created from ashford-ebooks on 2019-05-20 21:43:52. vii viii Contents 20 THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN ADDRESSING GLOBAL ISSUES 393 by Vinay Bhargava 21 GLOBAL COMPACTS: BUILDING A BETTER WORLD FOR ALL 411 by Vinay Bhargava and Asli Gurkan INDEX 435 Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. Boxes 5.1 6.1 6.2 7.1 8.1 8.2 8.3 9.1 9.2 9.3 10.1 10.2 10.3 11.1 12.1 13.1 13.2 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 18.1 Odious Debt 95 A Taxonomy of Migration 109 Migrant Dreams Become Nightmares 111 Senegal’s Agricultural Export Promotion Project 140 The World Food Summit’s Definition of Food Security 149 The Debate over Genetically Modified Maize in Zambia 154 Examples of Regional Integration in Agriculture in Africa 158 Can HIV/AIDS Treatment Be Made Affordable? 168 The Relationship Between Biodiversity and Human Health 174 The Successful Campaign to Contain the Ebola Virus 178 What Works to Reduce the Gender Gap in Education? 194 Recognizing the Need to Run in Order to Keep Up 195 The Education for All—Fast Track Initiative 197 Three Myths About Nutrition 208 Emissions Trading in the European Union 238 Energy and the Poor: A Fact Sheet 251 Selected World Bank Group Energy Projects in 2005 262 Why Forests Matter to Africa 306 Mexico: Second Community Forestry Project 319 Forest Law Enforcement and Governance 320 Amazon Regional Protected Areas 322 The Types of Corruption 342 <i>Global Issues for Global Citizens : An Introduction to Key Development Challenges</i>, edited by Vinay K. Bhargava, World Bank Publications, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, . Created from ashford-ebooks on 2019-05-20 21:43:52. Contents 18.2 21.1 21.2 Disclosure: The Right to Know 352 The Millennium Development Goals 415 Key Provisions of the 2005 United Nations World Summit 422 Figures 2.1 2.2 2.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.1 Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. 4.2 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 6.1 7.1 Share of Population Living on Less Than a Dollar a Day in Selected Countries, 1981 and 2001 38 Distribution of Global Gross National Income by Decile, 1980–2002 40 World Opinion on Poverty and Equality as a Major Issue and on the Incidence of Hunger 42 International Financial Integration as Measured by Capital Flows, 1860–2000 53 International Financial Integration as Measured by Interest Rate Differentials 54 International Financial Integration as Measured by the Stock of Foreign Capital 55 Shares of Global Foreign Capital by Income Range of Recipient Country 58 Net Official Development Assistance Provided by Development Assistance Committee Member Countries, 1990–2010 73 Distribution of the Increase in World Official Development Assistance, 2001–04 82 Debt Ratios in Heavily Indebted Poor Countries, 1979–2001 93 Actual and Simulated Debt-GDP Ratios in Low-Income Countries, 1980–2003 96 Debt Service and Poverty-Reducing Government Expenditure in HIPCs 99 Debt-Export Ratios in HIPC Completion Point Countries before and after Relief under the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative 99 Debt Service and Official Development Assistance for 28 Highly Indebted Poor Countries, 1999–2003 102 Rates of Emigration to the United States by Income, 1989–2000 110 Rates of Agricultural Protection from Border Measures and Direct Payments to Farmers, 2004 125 <i>Global Issues for Global Citizens : An Introduction to Key Development Challenges</i>, edited by Vinay K. Bhargava, World Bank Publications, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, . Created from ashford-ebooks on 2019-05-20 21:43:52. ix x Contents 8.1 8.2 9.1 9.2 10.1 10.2 11.1 12.1 12.2 12.3 Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. 12.4 13.1 13.2 13.3 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 15.1 15.2 15.3 Estimated Prevalence of Undernourishment in the Developing World, 2001–03 147 Estimated Annual Economic Costs of Malnutrition in Selected Countries 148 Transmission Routes of the SARS Virus in the 2003 Outbreak 173 Avian Flu Outbreaks in 2005 and Major Flyways of Migratory Birds 174 A Virtuous Cycle of Education and Development 189 Accounting for the Difference in the Gross Domestic Product Growth Between Ghana and the Republic of Korea, 1960–2000 190 Indicators of Malnutrition Among Children Under Five in Selected Countries and Regions, 1980–2005 204 Global Atmospheric Concentrations of Major Greenhouse Gases 221 Geographic Distribution of Projected Global Temperature Increases 224 Geographic Distribution of Projected Global Precipitation Change 225 Projected Energy Use in Developing Countries, by Source, 2000–30 229 Energy Consumption and Economic Growth 246 Energy Consumption and Human Development 246 Crude Oil Prices (Brent), 2002–05 249 Deaths from Unsafe Water and Poor Sanitation and Hygiene, 2001 266 Incidence of Water-Related Disasters by Type, 1960–2004 267 Composition of Water Use by Country Income, 2002 270 Access of Urban and Rural Residents to Water Supply and Sanitation, 1990 and 2002 272 Growth of an Ungoverned Open Access Fishery 286 Production from Capture Fisheries and Aquaculture by Developed and Developing Countries, and Food Fish Supply per Capita, 1972–2004 288 State of Exploitation of Global Fish Stocks, 1974–2004 289 <i>Global Issues for Global Citizens : An Introduction to Key Development Challenges</i>, edited by Vinay K. Bhargava, World Bank Publications, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, . Created from ashford-ebooks on 2019-05-20 21:43:52. Contents 15.4 16.1 16.2 16.3 17.1 17.2 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 19.1 19.2 World Aquaculture Production by Type and Location, 1972–2004 293 Forest Area under Community Ownership or Community Administration Worldwide, 1985, 2001, and Projected 2015 309 Main Causes of Deforestation by World Region, 1990–2000 311 A Possible Global Forest Scenario for 2050 323 Active Conflicts by Type, 1946–2004 328 GDP per Capita and Estimated Risk of Conflict 331 Corruption Perceptions Index for Selected Countries, 2005 342 Illicit Income Received by Iraq under the UN Oil-for-Food Programme 344 Key Constraints on Business as Reported by Firms, by World Region 346 Sectors and Institutions Most Affected by Corruption 347 Trust in Organizations and Institutions, 2001–05 348 The United Nations System 376 United Nations System Expenditure by Major Category, 2004–05 378 Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. Tables 1.1 2.1 3.1 4.1 6.1 7.1 7.2 7.3 A List of Global Issues by Thematic Area 3 People Living on Less Than a Dollar a Day, by Developing Region, 1981, 1990, and 2002 37 Standards and Codes Relevant for the International Financial Architecture 64 Composition of and Increase in Net Official Development Assistance, 2001–04 79 Economic Importance of Remittances by Developing Region and in Selected Countries, 2003 112 Product Composition of Merchandise Trade in Developing Countries 124 Average Applied Import Tariffs by Sector and Region, 2001 126 Estimated Impact of Full Liberalization of Global Merchandise Trade, by Country and Region, 2015 134 <i>Global Issues for Global Citizens : An Introduction to Key Development Challenges</i>, edited by Vinay K. Bhargava, World Bank Publications, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, . Created from ashford-ebooks on 2019-05-20 21:43:52. xi xii Contents 7.4 7.5 8.1 8.2 9.1 11.1 11.2 11.3 15.1 Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. 18.1 Distribution of Estimated Welfare Effects of Full Trade Liberalization, by Source and Product Group, 2015 135 Effects of Comprehensive Doha Trade Reform on Agricultural Output and Employment Growth, by Country and Region, 2005–15 137 Food Availability by World Region, Selected Years 150 Key International Conventions and Declarations Relating to Hunger and Food Security 160 Elements of an Effort to Deal with Infectious Diseases 184 Copenhagen Consensus Rankings of Development Investments by Social Return 205 Benefit-Cost Ratios for Selected Nutrition Programs 206 How Investing in Nutrition is Critical to Achieving the MDGs 212 Selected Global Indicators on Large-Scale and Small-Scale Fishing, 1980 295 Personal Effect of Corruption on Respondents, by Household Income 347 Annex 18.1 Recommended Measures in the ADB/OECD Anticorruption Action Plan for Asia and the Pacific 367 19.1 Programs, Funds, and Other Organs of the United Nations System and Specialized Agencies 374 <i>Global Issues for Global Citizens : An Introduction to Key Development Challenges</i>, edited by Vinay K. Bhargava, World Bank Publications, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, . Created from ashford-ebooks on 2019-05-20 21:43:52. Foreword Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. L ittle more than a year ago, the World Bank held the first in its series of Global Issues seminars. Since then, through videoconferences with more than 20 participating universities, the series has brought hundreds of students from around the world into a real-time dialogue with each other and with development professionals representing the Bank’s full range of economic and technical expertise. Many more students have participated indirectly, by accessing the videotaped sessions and lecture materials over the Internet. Through these discussions, participants on both sides have acquired a deeper understanding of some of the most urgent issues confronting humankind. This book grew out of the Global Issues seminars and is itself a testament to that two-way dialogue: the suggestion to compile the speakers’ lecture notes into a book came from the students themselves. Both the seminars and this book reflect the Bank’s conviction that the seemingly intractable problems of our globalizing world—from entrenched poverty, to climate change, to new infectious diseases such as AIDS and avian flu—can be solved, but only with the informed participation of a global citizenry, cooperating toward global solutions through global institutions that they themselves own. In today’s world, the unchecked spread of disease, hunger, pollution, and other menaces increasingly obscures established borders. Nations can no longer contain these forces, and experts can no longer— if they ever could—resolve them by prescribing technocratic fixes. By the same token, the general public can no longer simply outsource to government, at whatever level, the awesome responsibility of confronting these issues. Instead, we are all called, as responsible global citizens, to inform ourselves about these issues, to then inform others, and finally to get involved in seeking solutions. One lesson that emerges from the book is that the global issues are very often interconnected, even if they may not seem so at first. Climate change, xiii <i>Global Issues for Global Citizens : An Introduction to Key Development Challenges</i>, edited by Vinay K. Bhargava, World Bank Publications, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, . Created from ashford-ebooks on 2019-05-20 21:43:52. Copyright © 2006. World Bank Publications. All rights reserved. xiv Foreword for example, threatens not only farms in developing countries but also fisheries all around the world, while at the same time contributing to the spread of deadly infectious diseases. Similarly, lack of education in many developing countries perpetuates poverty, which in turn keeps education out of reach for many, in a vicious cycle, even as widespread undernutrition robs many countries of education’s potential returns. But another of the book’s messages is that this interconnectedness can be at least as much opportunity as obstacle: if some global problems are mutually reinforcing, so, too, can be their solutions. The book also reminds us that many global issues derive from the undersupply of global public goods. Like public goods at the local or the national level, such as roads and public schools, these are goods that are of value to everyone but that markets by themselves fail to deliver, because private providers cannot easily compel payment. Local and national governments can step in to provide these goods within their jurisdictions, but the problem in providing global public goods is precisely that no correspondingly global government exists or is likely to emerge. Yet, as the book also describes, more than a century of international cooperation has already led to some remarkable innovations in the provision of global public goods. From the founding of the International Telegraph Union over 140 years ago, to the creation of the World Bank itself in the 1940s, to more recent successes in protecting the ozone layer and eradicating smallpox, foresightful international leadership has time and again brought countries and concerned individuals together to meet urgent global needs. That kind of cooperative leadership in solving global problems is needed today more than ever. I am proud that the World Bank took the initiative to convene these Global Issues seminars, and I am grateful both to the Bank staff who, under Vinay Bhargava’s direction, organized and presented the seminars, and to the students—future global leaders—who engaged so energetically in the discussions and shared their own perspectives. I am especially grateful that my...
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