Notes - 1 Muslim Movements before 1857 a Intellectual...

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1) Muslim Movements before 1857 a) Intellectual Movement combined with religion: shah Walliullah’s movement and Sayyid Ahmed. b) Influenced by Abdul Wahab, Islamic revival movement in Arabia, Walliullah (1703-1762) imported the idea of return to Islamic scriptures to defy British and resurrect Mughal rule. c) Delhi College to promote study of Islamic texts and Urdu language. d) Muslim revivalism led to the foundation of the Deoband madrasa in 1866: socially conservative and politically progressive. 2) Muslim Movements, contd a) Sayyid Ahmed Berelwi (1786-1831) galvanized Muslims throughout India to support, particularly in NW frontier b) Started an anti-British campaign, purification of Islam campaign in 1820. c) Their fierce religiosity and anti-British feelings were the main motivating factors. d) British called them “Indian Wahabis.” e) Movement spread throughout western and northern India and even reached Bengal. f) Influenced the Bengal peasant, Titu Mir to oppose British rules and laws in Bengal. Was killed by British troops in 1831. 3) Faraizi Movement a) Founder Shariatullah (1781-1840) and followed by son Dadu Miyan (1819-1860). b) Organized in Bengal c) Faraizi is from the word farz, meaning compulsory. d) Rural Bengal had not been “improved” by education and colonial reform and technology. e) Land revenue policy of Permanent Settlement (1793) had created rift between zamindar (landlord) and ryot (peasant) class. f) Tax too heavy, local problems not understood – rice producing area, labor intensive, dependent on natural factors. g) Also, religion divided zamindar and ryot. h) Economic and religious issues combine and produce unrest. 4) Resist government and governance a) Faraizi movement began as a class war. b) Gathered lot of support initially. c) When they started to defy landlords by refusing to pay religion tax, the resistance changed course. d) Did not get help from the urban, elite Muslims to continue the struggle. e) Was put down with a heavy hand by the colonial administration. f) Muslims, particularly of rural areas, represented as fanatics, insurgents, some were even declared criminals. g) Divide between urban and elite Muslims, and rural poor Muslims became wider. h) Faraizi movement, the first serious resistance to the Raj.
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5) The Hindu response to the British reform policies 6) British Education: Bengal’s Renaissance a) Macaulay’s “Anglicist” policy made English education a state policy. b) Hindu College established and the “Young Bengal” movement got underway, led by Henry Derozio (1809-1831). c) Followed by a “Renaissance” of sorts, that started with Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Ended with Rabindra Nath Tagore. 7)
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Notes - 1 Muslim Movements before 1857 a Intellectual...

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