Chapter 8.docx - Yui Fuchigami Chapter 8 Critical-Thinking...

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Yui Fuchigami Chapter 8 Critical-Thinking Essay Questions Your answers to these kinds of questions demonstrate an ability to comprehend and apply ideas discussed in this chapter. 1. How do developmentalists measure self-esteem? Indicate and explain what factors influence the self- esteem of children. What are some strategies for improving children’s self-esteem? Answer: Developmentalists measures self-esteem using the multi trait multi method matrix approach in behavioral observation. Indicate and explain what factors influence the self-esteem of children 1. Parenting styles- children who were brought up by highly esteemed parents usually have a high esteem compare to children who were raised by low esteem parents. Supportive parents who have less conflicts impact a higher esteem in their children. 2. Self-efficacy- the term self-efficacy is used to describe the learned expectation where a child knows whether he or she is more or less capable of a particular task. Children with high self-efficacy are more motivated thus have a higher esteem. On the other hand children with low self-efficacy are timid and may opt not to approach a challenging task for fear of failure. 3. Peer groups- as children grow, they turn to their peer groups for affirmation. Peers who bully their fellow peers may inflict low self-esteem to fellow peers. 4. Presence of close friendships- children who happen to be in close friendships gain high esteem as they feel valued compared to children who lack close friends. 5. Health - children with disabilities are often shy and they try to compare themselves with other kids which lowers their self-esteem. 2. Explain Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, and indicate three criticisms of his approach. Answer: thoughts, and what is good and bad about our being who we are. The theory states that moral reasoning is the basis of ethical behavior. It has six identifiable stages grouped into 3 levels, which are pre-conventional morality, conventional morality, and post-conventional morality. Three criticisms of the approach were: It emphasizes justice to the exclusion of other moral values, such as caring, there is an overlap between stages that they should more properly be regarded as separate domains. These stages were not culturally neutral. People frequently demonstrate significant inconsistency in their moral judgements like drinking and driving.
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  • Fall '18
  • Cheryl Timm
  • Kohlberg's stages of moral development

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