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ENGLISH GRAMMARAnna Luisa AlecuPH Freiburg
What is your own personalexperience of grammar?ØWhat is grammar to you?1. I make gramma+cal mistakes in my firstlanguage.2. You should usewerea:erif, notwas.
Why does grammar maEer???
Why does grammar maEer???
Why does grammar maEer???“If the purpose of a language is toensure that one is understood,then grammar is thesuperstructure.“
Why does grammar maEer???RegulariFes•Languages have regulari+es (if you don’t likethe word ‘rules’) in the ways they shape andorganise words for various reasons. If you’renot aware (consciously or unconsciously) ofthese regulari+es you may not be able to_______language successfully, or ______it soas to make yourself ________. (Swan 2012)
Why does grammar maEer???Explaining ___________:“Yesterday I shot an elephant in my pyjamas.How he got into my pyjamas I don‘t know.“–a) adverbial (he was in his pyjamas)–b) part of the object (an elephant in my pyjamas)
Why does grammar maEer???Understanding _______:There is no room in that room.(Paradox?)a) uncountable noun:spaceb) countable noun = unit
Knowing grammar•David Crystal (1995: 191):“[email protected] speakers of English quite oDen say thatthey ‘don‘t know‘ any grammar, or thatforeigners speak English beFer than they do“.
Dichotomy: McArthur (1983)•Na+ve speakers o:en unable to explain thegramma+cal rules of their language becauseknowledge_________:–opera+onal grammar–primary grammar–“They know their grammar without necessarily knowing aboutit.“(Yule 2006: 101)•Non-na+ve speakers o:en have to learn theserules___________–__________grammar–secondary grammar
Grammar is...“the ______ _______of the language“(Kortmann)
OUTLINE:1.Parts of speech2.Gramma+cal rela+ons: subject, direct object,indirect object, predicate, adverbial3.Phrases, clauses, sentences4.Gramma+cal categories[email protected]vs[email protected]grammar
1. Parts of Speech______tentwordsMajor part of message(e.g. nounds, _____,adjec+ves, adverbs)FuncFonwordsGramma+calfunc+on (e.g.preposi+ons,_______, ar+cles)
1. The parts of speech•table, storm, teacher, wall•move, walk, jump, be, have•lucky, fresh, [email protected]•naturally, very, fortunatelyIntro-Parts of speech- G. categories - Prescriptive vs. Descriptive G.
1. The parts of speech•a, an, the, those, these•it, you, himself•under, above, near, at•because, if, and•oops, uh-uh, ouchIntro-Parts of speech- G. categories - Prescriptive vs. Descriptive G. - Syntax
2. Basic strategies for the expressionofgrammaFcal relaFons1) _____ _______:Changes in the order ofcons+tuents are usually associated with changes in_______(the girl forgot the boy; the boy forgot thegirl; the boy the girl forgot; the girl the boy forgot)2) InﬂecFon(I play the guitar; she plays the guitar; sheplayed the guitar)3) FuncFon words(explain it tome; an ounce ofpuregold; I‘m just coming back fromHull)4) ________(you are a student; you are a student?)
SyntacFc elements& their func+ons(basedon Ma^hews 1997)•Subject: represents s.o. or sth.of which something issaid(Stevehelped me. Knowinghimhelped me.)•Predicate: a part of a clause or sentencerepresen+ng what _______of the subject (My friendboughtanewcoat). Some linguists use the term torefer to the ______only.•_________