Our Stories.pdf - Our Stories Our Stories First Peoples in Canada DANI KWANLAF JEREMY LUCYK AND SHANNON WINTERSTEIN Our Stories by Centennial College is

Our Stories.pdf - Our Stories Our Stories First Peoples in...

  • Centennial College
  • HUM 4002
  • BrigadierClover7814
  • 624
  • 100% (1) 1 out of 1 people found this document helpful

This preview shows page 1 out of 624 pages.

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 624 pages?

Unformatted text preview: Our Stories Our Stories First Peoples in Canada DANI KWANLAF, JEREMY LUCYK, AND SHANNON WINTERSTEIN Our Stories by Centennial College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Contents Welcome 1 Dedication 3 Forward 4 Acknowledgement 8 Our Team 13 About Our Cover 28 Part I. Current Issues 1. Indian Residential School System 31 2. Lost Generations 103 3. Resistance Movements 120 4. MMIWG 129 5. Criminal Justice System 147 6. Restorative Justice 175 7. Environment and Natural Resources 186 8. Human Rights 204 Part II. Reconciliation 9. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada 253 Part III. Communities and Traditional Teachers 10. Stages of Life 283 11. Four Direction Teachings 287 12. Seven Grandfather Teachings 293 13. 13 Grandmother Moons 298 14. Indigenous Leadership 301 15. Ceremonies and Socials 309 Part IV. Communities and Cultures 16. Languages 343 17. Indigenous Sports 353 18. Indigenous Artifacts 372 19. Indigenous Organizations 384 20. Métis 398 Part V. Self-Governance and Sovereignty 21. Identity, Status, and Belonging 405 22. Indigenous French-English Relations 418 23. Chief and Council 424 24. Christianity and First Peoples 434 25. Demographic Profiles of Indigenous Peoples 446 26. Gender Identities 454 Part VI. Treaties 27. Wampum Belts 481 28. Introduction to Treaties 493 29. Legislation Timelines 499 30. Early Treaties 500 31. Numbered Treaties 504 32. Modern Treaties 595 33. Land Claims, Title, and Ownership 601 Welcome Interactive 1.1: Welcome message from Dr. Craig Stephenson, Vice President Student and Community Engagement A YouTube element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here: indigstudies/?p=4 Interactive 1.2: Welcome message from Dr. Marilyn Herie, Vice Welcome | 1 President Academic and Chief Learning Officer at Centennial College A YouTube element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here: indigstudies/?p=4 2 | Welcome Dedication Our Indigenous etextbook is dedicated to the memory of Reva Jewell – Clan Mother/advocate/social innovator/service provider of the Haudenosaunee. On December 4, 2010, Reva Jewell showed Centennial College the pathway it needed to travel to engage and educate Indigenous learners. She taught us that everything we do must be rooted in seeking guidance and wisdom from chiefs, elders, traditionalists, and leaders from First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities to inform our planning and decision-making. Following her guidance we have held numerous gatherings that have led to the development and implementation of college plans in the areas of outreach, service, academics, space, and culture. Dedication | 3 Forward Growing up, I was told many stories by my Grandparents. These stories were about the world around us: creation stories, trickster stories, and folklore stories. I heard stories about how our people would be haunted by Sabe if we did not act with respect and integrity. Stories have always been a part of our lives. Stories are how we learn about our ancestors and how we come to understand and appreciate the lives they have lived. Grandpa Harry always told stories as he carved a piece of wood into an ax handle or paddle, giving that piece of the woodwork a sense of life and identity. Our Grandmothers were the same, telling stories as they quilted patterns and made crafts imbued with meaning for the local trading post. Looking back, I now know and understand the value of storytelling. I worry though that it has lost value in our traditional teachings. Our way of knowing is in our stories; they are how we teach our culture. Stories connect us to each other and our spiritual understanding of our communities. 4 | Forward I worry, I worry those days of sitting, listening to Grandpa talk about the hunting and harvest seasons while smoking on an old pipe have passed. In light of this, there is a story I would like to share with you: One day a young man was walking a path he had taken many times before, only this time he was walking a bit slower and with hesitation. Just beyond the treeline, he could see the clearing, indicating he was close to his destination. As he moved closer towards the opening in the trees, fear overcame him. He stopped and pondered his next move. His breath echoing through the trees, it was like the wind answered him, brushing up against him pushing him forward. He trudged onward; the smell of smoke choked his lungs. Sounds of muffled voices carried through the air, conversation and laughter. He peered towards the clearing and listened carefully to the voices coming from the north. Dusk was setting in as he stumbled quietly closer to the clearing. He found a rotten log just beyond the brightness of an open fire and sat down still hidden in the shadows. In that light, seated around the fire, he saw a circle of his Anishinaabe teachers. He sat there listening to the conversation, sheepishly hoping not to disturb the teachers. He prayed they would not acknowledge him. It had been several moons since he had stood in the circle or participated in the teachings and ceremonies. After a while, as they stoked the fire, they acknowledged him. They acknowledged him with honour, welcoming him as if he had always been there learning and sharing beside them. An old man turned to him and gestured him to move closer to the circle. With embarrassment and hesitation, he did. The old man turned and asked him, “Did you hear about the young lost hunter’s boy?” He replied, “Yes.” “We had been wondering how we could help search for him. Forward | 5 But maybe you could help out in this quest?” the old man said with a look of deep concern on his face. He replied, “What should I do?” “Well, that lost boy has everyone looking for him right now.” The old man drank from his tea and glanced over his copper cup. “Interesting you should show up today, we were wondering about you. We have not seen you for some time. Great to have you join us again.” Then he said again, “We need your help.” He began to give instructions. “At first light, you need to go to the meadow where that tall oak tree stands. At the tree, look up, way up, and you will see a bee taking its final flight of the season before it hibernates. Watch the bee as it flies and dodges the leaves that fall from the tall oak tree. It is going to fly over the stream that flows next to the tree. It will follow the stream down through the forest to the larger body of water. The bee will fly towards the lake and fly off into the horizon. The answer is right there, just be careful where you step.” At the early light, the young man made his way to the meadow. As he reached the edge of the field, there stood the tall oak tree the old man had mentioned. As he approached, he looked upwards. There he saw a bee flying as if to dodge the leaves, who made its way just as the old man said: down to the water and off into the horizon, then out of sight. The young man stood there looking at the water but could not see any answer about the missing boy. He studied and retraced his steps in his mind. Still no answer. He played and replayed the instructions of the old man, and retraced his steps again. After 27 attempts, frustrated beyond control, he began to curse and discount the old man and his old ways. He stood in the twilight looking at the horizon and mumbled to himself, “Tall oak, I’ve found the bee, the leaves, the path, the horizon, all the items, so I must be missing something.” As he pondered, he looked down and there he saw a clear 6 | Forward image of himself. At that moment the moral and purpose of the quest came to him. Stand tall and believe in yourself. Our stories have a specific purpose. They are meant to strengthen future generations and to build our nations. The teachings kept our legacy attached to our sovereignty, and today they rekindle the missing piece of our identity. This book represents an opportunity to tell our story to those who do not know the truth. Be kind to the words of my people. Joseph McQuabbie Forward | 7 Acknowledgement Centennial College is proud to be a part of a rich history of education in this province and in Toronto. We acknowledge that we are on the treaty lands and territory of the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation. We honour and pay tribute to their citizens and ancestors for their spirit and energy. We pay tribute to their legacy and the legacy of all First Peoples of Canada, as we seek to strengthen ties with the communities we serve and build the future by providing educational opportunities for all their relations. The Mississauga Nation has a strong story about its heritage and history. We are all people of stories, and these stories are our legacy. Today the traditional meeting place of Toronto is still home to many Indigenous Peoples from across Turtle Island, and we are grateful to have the opportunity to work in the communities that have grown in the treaty lands of the Mississaugas. We acknowledge that we are all treaty people and accept our responsibility to honour all our relations. 8 | Acknowledgement Our Stories: First Peoples in Canada was generously funded by eCampus Ontario with financial from the assistance Office Academic of the Vice-President and Chief Learning Officer of Centennial College. Without Faculty, staff, members of the Aboriginal Education Council, and guests at Centennial College for the flag raising ceremony. this financial support we would never have dared to undertake a project of this significance and magnitude. We are honoured to have been able to produce an Open Educational Resource, which is freely available to all who are interested in hearing truth through storytelling. This text was developed as a resource to support our Indigenous Studies: First Peoples in Canada stackable credential launched in 2014. This credential is an optional companion to our diploma programs and allows students to graduate with a diploma in a chosen field of study and a certificate of specialization in Indigenous Studies. The topics covered in this etextbook support the learning outcomes of our program; we acknowledge that they are not exhaustive nor representative of all topics that could have been included. The content of the etextbook will be reviewed on a yearly basis and enriched as we continue to develop resources in the years to come. Centennial opportunity College to work has been with fortunate members to of have the Indigenous communities and Nations who have shared their knowledge and guidance over the years. We acknowledge the significance of these relationships in providing us with the insight and direction required to undertake this work. It is through Acknowledgement | 9 developing these relationships that we were able to engage in conversations and honour the stories shared with us by Indigenous citizens and community members. We have endeavoured to tell Indigenous truths through storytelling. Truths about the times before the settlers, truths interactions of communities, about the Indigenous clans, and Nations, and the settlers, and truths about the ways we Chief James Marsden, from must move forward towards Alderville First Nation, giving a reconciliation. Laying bare the facts has not been easy, short speech at the flag raising ceremony. but it is essential if we are to honour our commitment to move forward and heal. We believe this etextbook to be one of a kind and hope it will be welcomed by all as a respectful contribution to Truth and Reconciliation. The stories that informed this etextbook were gifted to Centennial College by citizens of Nations and members of Indigenous communities. We recognize that these are not our stories, and we claim no ownership of them. We wish to express our gratitude to those who shared their stories with us. As with all major undertakings many people contributed their skills, talents, and gifts to bring this dream to life. We acknowledge the many hours our contributors devoted to this etextbook. Thank you to the following people for their knowledge, time, generosity and patience in working with us. 10 | Acknowledgement • Andrew Wesley, Michael Cheena and the staff at Council Fire, Toronto • Aura • Brianna Olson • Carolyn Myers Boone, Patsy L. McArthur and Jenna McGuire, Historic Saugeen Métis • Chief Duke Peltier, Wikwemikong Unceded First Nation • Chief James Marsden, Alderville First Nation • Chief Lady Bird • Chief Phyllis Williams, Anne Taylor, and Louise Musgrave, and DJ Fife, Curve Lake First Nation • Chief Stacey Laforme • Constance Simmonds • Corrine Michel • Derek Kenny • Edmund Matatawabin • Faye Martin • Grand Chief Patrick Madahbee • Grand Council Chief Glen Hare • Harmony Nadjiwon • Jason Provost • Joseph McQuabbie • Julia Candlish, Chiefs of Ontario • Laura Colwell • Leigh Simpson • Len Fortune • Ma-Nee Chacaby • Maria Montejo, Dodem Kanonhsa, Toronto • Members of Centennial College’s Aboriginal Education Council • Native Child and Family Services Toronto Acknowledgement | 11 • Native Women’s Resource Centre • Peter Sackaney • Rhiannon Johnson • Rob Lackie • Samantha Boshart • Shalane Rodriguez • Shane McLeod • Smokii Sumac • Staff at Anishnaabe Health Toronto • Susie Kicknosway Jones • Tamara Tran • The ENAGB program at the NCCT • The Native Canadian Centre of Toronto (NCCT) • Wilamina McGrimmond 12 | Acknowledgement Our Team Project Managers Dr. Meera Mather Meera Mather is Chair of the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences and oversees the curriculum and delivery of the Indigenous Studies program. She coauthored and co-led this etextbook. Dr. Carol Roffey Dr. Carol Roffey has contributed to many Indigenous initiatives at Centennial College. Part of the Aboriginal Education Steering Committee, she co-developed the Indigenous Studies stackable credential and co-managed this OER. Our Team | 13 Writers Jodie Adams Jodie Adams is a program coordinator and professor in the Child and Youth Care program. She is towards degree a working in Aboriginal Adult Education from Brock University. Liz Clarke Liz Clarke was born of settler ancestry on lands that are both Anishinabek and Haudenosauneega Confederacy. She hopes to continue to listen, learn, and do her part to support 14 | Our Team reconciliation. Susan G. Enberg Susan G. Enberg is a photographer and filmmaker who coproduced the film In Jesus’ Name. The film focuses on survivor stories from St. Anne’s Residential School. Sean Kinsella Seán Caron Kinsella is a nêhithaw/nêhiyaw/Nakawé/ otipemisiwak/Irish Two-Spirit person who was born in Tkaronto and currently resides in Mississauga. They have an MEd from Our Team | 15 OISE (University of Toronto). Dani Kwan-Lafond Dani Kwan-Lafond, a former social worker, is mixed race and trilingual. Her family is Asian, French-Canadian, and Indigenous, with diverse religious/cultural practices. She is a professor at Centennial College. Dr. Meera Mather Meera Mather is Chair of the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences and oversees the curriculum and delivery of the 16 | Our Team Indigenous Studies program. She has co-authored and co-led this etextbook. Jennifer Meness Jennifer Meness, Waabishkaa Migizi (White Eagle), is Migizi Dodem (Eagle Clan) from the Algonquins of Pikwàkanagàn First Nation. She is a powwow dancer and Ph.D. candidate at York University. Joseph McQuabbie Joseph McQuabbie is currently the Indigenous Outreach Worker at Centennial College. He is also an entrepreneur and Our Team | 17 Indigenous advocate who provides quality consultation and strategies to Indigenous communities. Dr. Moyo Rainos Mutamba Dr. Mutamba is an Indigenous-culture educator based in Toronto, with roots in Zimbabwe. His research and writing interests explore global Indigenous knowledges, anti-colonial movements, adult education, and cultural politics. Natalie Thornhill Natalie Thornhill earned her master’s degree from Trent University in anthropology. She is a faculty member at Centennial College and a facilitator in the college’s Indigenous 18 | Our Team Studies Stackable Credential program. Shannon Winterstein Shannon Winterstein is the coordinator of stackable credential programming at Centennial College and the lead curriculum developer of the Indigenous Studies courses. She is of mixed Indigenous and German-Scottish background. Editors Len Fortune Len Fortune is a seasoned Indigenous journalist worked management in who senior where he acted as an editor, designer, researcher and peacemaker. He has penned several books, including three on Our Team | 19 Indigenous realities. Kathryn Willms Kathryn Willms is a professional editor, writer, and project coordinator, specializing in educational materials. She was previously vice-president of Colborne Communications and publisher of Iguana Books. Cover Art Chief Lady Bird Chief Lady Bird is an Anishinaabe (Chippewa and Potawatomi) artist from Rama First Nation and Moose Deer Point First Nation, based in Toronto. She creates digital illustrations, street art, 20 | Our Team and mixed media paintings. Aura, BFA, DTATI (Candidate) Aura is an Oneida artist based in Tkaronto who uses mixed media, beadwork, murals, and digital illustration to discuss intergenerational healing, identity, empowerment, and mothering. Video PJ (Patrick James) Boyd An Irish/Canadian storyteller who has majored in musical theatre performance, videography, and journalism, PJ Boyd is a published and broadcasted journalist who works to help others tell their Our Team | 21 stories. Cassandra Poley Cassandra Poley, a professor with Centennial College since 2011 in Humanities and Social Sciences, has a master’s degree in communication, an honour’s degree in sociology, and works in live television. Photography Natalie Thornhill Natalie Thornhill earned her master’s degree from Trent University in anthropology. She is a faculty member at Centennial College and a facilitator in Indigenous Stackable 22 | Our Team the college’s Studies Credential program. Tamara Tran Tamara Tran, a proud Indigenous woman, recently completed her Community and Justice Services diploma and Indigenous Studies certificate at Centennial College. She has been a freelance photographer for three years. Graphics Christopher Jessop Christopher versatile Jessop graphic is a designer based in Toronto, Ontario. He creates visual experiences through design with a focus on editorial design, branding, typography, and photography. Our Team | 23 Vania Putri Vania Putri is a graphic designer, illustrator, and eternal rebel. She specializes in handwritten typography and illustrations, and has a background in marketing management. Technical Dani Kwan-Lafond Dani Kwan-Lafond, a former social worker, is mixed race and trilingual. Her family is Asian, French-Canadian, and Indigenous, with religious/cultural She is a diverse practices. professor at Centennial College. Shannon Winterstein Shannon Winterstein is the coordinator of stackable credential 24 | Our Team programming at Centennial College and the lead curriculum developer of the Indigenous Studies courses. She is of mixed Indigenous and German-Scottish background. Library Jane Burpee Jane Burpee is Director of Libraries at Centennial College and has led service development in First Nation, public, and post-secondary libraries in northern Ontario, Guelph, Montreal, New York, and Toronto. Stephen Spong Stephen Spong is the Copyright Services Librarian at Centennial College. He holds a J.D. from Osgoode Hall Law Our Team | 25 School and a master’s in information from the University of Toronto. Support Anthony Bertin Anthony Bertin has worked in child welfare, children’s mental health, and education in addition to postsecondary education. He is deeply committed to, and passionate transformative about, power the of learning. Oliver Siason An ally of Indigenous Peoples, Oliver Siason supports the Department of Humanities and Soc...
View Full Document

  • Spring '16
  • Ode, First Nations, Indian Residential Schools, Indian Residential School System

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture