AP World FoundationsBeginnings in History (3.5 million BCE - 600 BCE) Paleolithic Era●The first modern humans emerged in East Africa around 200,000 years ago and migrated out of Africa to the rest of the world. ●The Paleolithic Era lasted from the beginning of the stone age until approximately 12,000 years ago. Hunter-Gatherer SocietiesHunting-Foraging: lifestyle where a person would hunt wild animals and gather nuts, berries, and roots to eat rather than farming●Hunter-gatherer lifestyle supported humans for over 95% of their existence●Paleolithic people used tools such as fire and weapons to adapt and survive in a variety of different climates and terrainsNomads: people who moved from place to place without a permanent home. ●Hunter-foragers were relatively free of hierarchy and people were equal for the most part●Paleolithic people enjoyed a religious life. They created musical instruments, cave paintings, and carvings for religious purposes. They offered sacrifices and buried the dead. Animism: a belief system that all things in the natural world are animated by spirits. Shamans: religious leaders that were thought to be able to speak to the dead and heal the sick. The Neolithic Revolution●The end of the ice age around 10,000 years ago led to the start of the Neolithic revolution●Population during this era rose from around 2 million worldwide to around 10 million worldwide. Pastoralism & Herding SocietiesDomestication: the taming of animals for use by humans as a pet or to perform labor.●Humans began to domesticate dogs to provide companionship, security, and assistance in hunting. Goats, sheep, and pigs were domesticated in order to provide food and supplies.Pastoralism: the practice of moving with animals along with the
environmental patterns to feed the animals●Pastoralists lived nomadic lifestyles due to the livestock’s diet. They used wheeled vehicles to store supplies and rode on horseback to transport. Agriculture●The domestication of plants, or agriculture, began around 10,000 years ago following the end of the ice-age. ●Early crops included wheat, barley, millet, rice, potatoes, corn, beans,and squash. ●Over time, seeds, crops, and agricultural techniques were passed on throughout societies●Agriculture had a large impact on the environment. Through foresting, mining, and irrigation had led to a more advanced and larger agricultural community.