ap world: unit 1 - AP World Foundations Beginnings in...

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AP World Foundations Beginnings in History (3.5 million BCE - 600 BCE) Paleolithic Era The first modern humans emerged in East Africa around 200,000 years ago and migrated out of Africa to the rest of the world. The Paleolithic Era lasted from the beginning of the stone age until approximately 12,000 years ago. Hunter-Gatherer Societies Hunting-Foraging: lifestyle where a person would hunt wild animals and gather nuts, berries, and roots to eat rather than farming Hunter-gatherer lifestyle supported humans for over 95% of their existence Paleolithic people used tools such as fire and weapons to adapt and survive in a variety of different climates and terrains Nomads: people who moved from place to place without a permanent home. Hunter-foragers were relatively free of hierarchy and people were equal for the most part Paleolithic people enjoyed a religious life. They created musical instruments, cave paintings, and carvings for religious purposes. They offered sacrifices and buried the dead. Animism: a belief system that all things in the natural world are animated by spirits. Shamans: religious leaders that were thought to be able to speak to the dead and heal the sick. The Neolithic Revolution The end of the ice age around 10,000 years ago led to the start of the Neolithic revolution Population during this era rose from around 2 million worldwide to around 10 million worldwide. Pastoralism & Herding Societies Domestication: the taming of animals for use by humans as a pet or to perform labor. Humans began to domesticate dogs to provide companionship, security, and assistance in hunting. Goats, sheep, and pigs were domesticated in order to provide food and supplies. Pastoralism: the practice of moving with animals along with the
environmental patterns to feed the animals Pastoralists lived nomadic lifestyles due to the livestock’s diet. They used wheeled vehicles to store supplies and rode on horseback to transport. Agriculture The domestication of plants, or agriculture, began around 10,000 years ago following the end of the ice-age. Early crops included wheat, barley, millet, rice, potatoes, corn, beans, and squash. Over time, seeds, crops, and agricultural techniques were passed on throughout societies Agriculture had a large impact on the environment. Through foresting, mining, and irrigation had led to a more advanced and larger agricultural community.

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