Art_Power_Guide.pdf - 2 0 1 8 2 0 1 9 EDITION ART ALPACA-IN-CHIEF Daniel Berdichevsky POWER GUIDE ART rs a 24 Ye \u00ae I II III IV V VI BY JACQUELINE KHOR

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Unformatted text preview: 2 0 1 8 2 0 1 9 EDITION ART ALPACA-IN-CHIEF Daniel Berdichevsky POWER GUIDE ART rs a 24 Ye ® I. II. III. IV. V. VI. BY JACQUELINE KHOR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE RAFFLES INSTITUTION EDITED BY JOSEPHINE RICHSTAD PH.D., UCLA B.A., COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY © DEMIDEC 2018 DemiDec, The World Scholar’s Cup, Power Guide, and Cram Kit are registered trademarks of the DemiDec Corporation. Academic Decathlon and USAD are registered trademarks of the United States Academic Decathlon Association. . Art Power Guide | 2 This guide breaks down 1960s art into bite-sized, easily digestible statements. Here are a few style notes for those new to DemiDec: ▪ Bolded terms flag key terms and phrases. They are grouped and defined in the power lists at the end of the guide for quick review. ▪ Quotes provided in the official USAD resource are excerpted in full. While not strictly factual material, you should still be familiar with them lest they appear in exams. ▪ Additional information is flagged in a plain footnote that clarifies areas of vagueness or inaccuracy in the guide, or as an Enrichment Fact for the curious. Additional commentary, sarcasm, and humor can be found in signed footnotes. This year’s curriculum covers 1960s art, broadly defined; in practice, it spills over into the late 1950s and early 1970s. Geographically, it is limited to American art in some way, with some cross-pollination from European influences or residencies. C U R R I C U LU M B R E A K D O W N Section V 15% Section I 20% Section IV 25% Section II 15% Section III 25% Need help deciding how to study? Here are some tips: ▪ If you have one month left, review the resource guides ▪ If you have one week left, look over your Power Guides (like this one!) ▪ If you have one day left, check out the Cram Kits, take a deep breath, and get some rest. Good luck! Art Power Guide | 3 POWER PREVIEW POWER NOTES ▪ ▪ ▪ Overview of Art History Definition Art history investigates a work of art This context includes social, religious, and economic factors Art historians study pieces of art and their original meaning Art historians consider many factors when analyzing a piece of artwork Factors influencing a piece of artwork • Formal qualities • Function of piece • Goal of artist and patron • Viewpoints of different audiences Other disciplines such as anthropology, sociology, and history relate closely to art history The subject also overlaps with the fields of aesthetics and art criticism Aesthetics studies beauty and its expression Art criticism uses the press to inform the general public on art events Methods and Inquiries Today, historians define art very broadly The historical definition included only fine art Fine art Art today Paintings, prints, drawings, sculpture, architecture Includes crafts, textiles, pottery, body art, mass produced items, design of ordinary items Produced for limited audience The meaning of art often depends on historical context Social status Education Factors influencing the perception of a piece of art Religion Gender Race Physical access Take Michelangelo’s paintings on the Sistine Chapel ceiling as an example Art Power Guide | 4 The Pope • • Patron with exclusive access Chapel Worker Modern Tourist • Low literacy level • Different religions • Sees the building as a workplace • View the piece from a historical, religious, and artistic context Has extensive theological knowledge All three can still appreciate the beauty of the work Historical Inquiry Two modes of analysis exist Formal Analysis Contextual Analysis Concentrates on visual qualities Looks outside of the piece itself Assumes visual characteristics Looks at the context of a piece of reveal something about piece art Uses the elements of art Considers contexts surrounding the creation and consumption of art Focuses on piece itself (not Uses factors such as cultural, social, religious, and economic external factors) contexts Often the first step in studying Also considers patronage, access an artwork to the artwork, location of the piece, monetary cost, and subject matter Art historians often trace the chronological development of art Chronological development implies that the work of one generation influences future generations This mode of study varies across different cultural settings The method of comparative study looks at multiple pieces of art side by side Analyzing a Gothic piece compared to a Renaissance artwork is an example of a comparative study This comparison highlights stylistic differences between each period’s piece This form of study helps us understand how styles evolve in historical context How Art Historians Work Art historians start with a close examination of the piece Ideally, they can directly examine the original artwork Viewing sculptures in photographs makes it difficult to grasp their scale and threedimensional qualities Pictures of paintings cannot communicate their texture and vibrant colors Photographs may seem flat and lose subtleties when reproduced Art historians often settle for reproductions due to various constraints Historians also refer to several other items to gain context on the artwork Art Power Guide | 5 Common Sources of Context Earlier descriptions of the piece Associated studies such as sketches and preparatory models Other pieces of art by the artist and their contemporaries Written letters of communication, commission documents, or art criticism Documentation on the cost and source of the materials Referenced texts, such as a text explaining the function of an art piece in a ritual Interviews with artists and consumers, especially in oral history cultures Written work helps connect the art piece with other works of the time period These works include literature, theatre, and musical pieces Art historians also occasionally use participant observation Anthropology influences this form of investigation Participation is more valuable than only observing, for example in West African masquerade traditions The function of the piece and ceremony cannot be studied in a museum Background and Development Art history first arose as a discipline in the mid-eighteenth century Art commentary started earlier Key figures in art history Pliny the Elder (23-79 CE) Analyzed art over time in Natural History Giorgio Vasari (1511-74) Compiled biographies of Italian artists in The Lives of Artists Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-68) Emphasized connection between changes in style and historical events Art historians continue to examine connections between formal qualities of art and the context of artwork However, other influences have become important Feminist historians critique the traditional emphasis on white men Marxist, psychoanalytic, and other perspectives have also been included The definition of “visual culture” has expanded It de-emphasizes the notion of artistic genius and famous masterpieces Elements of Art Formal qualities of art It is crucial to examine the various formal qualities of an artwork Formal qualities of art Line Shape Form Space Color Line denotes the most fundamental of the elements of art Fingers, pencils, and pens can all be used to create lines Texture Art Power Guide | 6 A line refers to the path a point travels Common examples include the borders between colors and the edges of objects Characteristics of lines TRAIT length width visibility width/ uniformity weight RANGE Short-long Thin-thick Faint-bold Even-uneven Soft-hard EXAMPLE An implied line refers to a non-solid line, such as dots or dashes An example might be the path marked by footprints in sand/snow Lines can convey different feelings and ideas Horizontal and vertical lines portray a sense of stability and stillness Vertical lines pull eyes upward Medieval churches exploit this phenomenon to evoke the heavens Horizontal lines offer a sense of calmness Jagged and curvy lines suggest movement and activity Shape and Form Two-dimensional art occurs on a flat plane, and have no depth Art that has depth and exists in space is known as three-dimensional art Shapes Forms Two-dimensional Three-dimensional e.g.: circles, triangles, and squares e.g.: pyramids, cones, spheres, and cubes Media: Painting, drawing, photography, prints Media: Architecture and sculptures Forms and shapes can be geometric or organic Geometric Organic Defined mathematically Not defined mathematically Precise, regular Irregular and freeform Convey order, stability, and stillness Convey movement and rhythm Ex: circles, spheres, cubes, squares Ex: clouds Space and perspective Space describes the arrangement of shapes and forms Positive space is the forms in the piece that compose a figure Negative space takes up the area around the figure or the open areas of the work Perspective creates the illusion of depth in an artwork It has an especially important role in two-dimensional pieces A range of techniques creates perspective Two common techniques shading or highlighting borders These mimic how the objects would appear in different lightings Other techniques can help the artist manipulate how close or distant a figure appears Art Power Guide | 7 Technique Close Objects Distant Objects Object placement Lower in the plane Higher in the plane Size of the object Large Small Overlapping On top of other objects Behind other objects Level of detail Very detailed Less detailed Aerial perspective shows how objects appear from a distance through the interference of airborne particles, fog, and smoke Atmospheric perspective is another term for aerial perspective Distant objects appear as faint, lighter, and more neutral in color Close objects appear as better defined and have more contrast in color Linear perspective originated during the Renaissance It has become the most common form of perspective since it creates very realistic images through mathematical principles Several lines end at a common point on the plane Roads and fences stretching out into the distance exemplify linear perspective The lines converge on a vanishing point on the horizon A common example from Renaissance paintings is checkerboard floors Painters do not show the lines as parallel as they would be in real life Instead, vertical lines converge at the vanishing point The floor appears to recede toward the back wall, as it would seem in person Color (hue) All colors come from the three primary colors, red, yellow, and blue Secondary colors come from two primary colors A primary color combined with a secondary color results in a tertiary color Primary colors = Secondary color Red + yellow Orange Yellow + blue Green Blue + red Violet Tertiary colors Red-violet Blue-violet Blue-green Yellow-green Yellow-orange Red-orange The color wheel visually organizes different hues It was developed in the 18th century from Isaac Newton’s 17th century work This tool uses 12 hues, placing complementary colors across from each other The neutral colors of black and white create a spectrum of grays Black and white do not count as hues Value describes the lightness or darkness of a color Adding white creates lighter hues while adding black creates darker hues The value of an artwork impacts the mood and quality of the piece Intensity refers to the brightness or purity of a color Art Power Guide | 8 Unmixed (pure)1 colors have greater intensity than mixed colors Adding black, gray, or a color’s complement decreases the intensity of a color Adding two complements together in equal portions produces a muddy brown Color schemes create various moods or visual effects The relativity of color says that a shade looks different depending on its adjacent colors The value and character of a color can thus change Warm and cool color schemes vary between cultures In Western culture, reds, oranges, and yellows exemplify warm colors Heat, fire, summer, and the sun evoke these colors These associations can be different in different cultures Contrasting this, blues, greens, and violets constitute cool colors Water, trees, mountains, and snow remind us of cool colors Space is created using these color schemes Warm colors seem closer to the viewer than cool colors Contrasting warm and cool colors creates movement Artists can use either local, optical, or arbitrary color to create different moods The popularity of arbitrary coloring rose in the twentieth century Local Color Optical Color Arbitrary Color Normal daylight No special effects Special lighting Lighting during moonlight, daybreak, or candlelight Emphasizes certain emotions Aesthetic impact Texture Texture describes the feel of an object’s surface We retain tactile memories and predict textures based on past experiences Actual texture and visual texture are two types of texture Two-dimensional pieces have visual texture, the appearance of textured surfaces It comes from line patterns, shapes, shading, and contrasts between light and dark Greater contrasts in lighting convey a rougher texture Shiny objects appear to reflect light while matte surfaces do not Brushstrokes can create actual texture in two-dimensional pieces Three-dimensional pieces have actual texture, created using the piece’s material Composition Principles The artist’s organization of the elements of art creates the composition of a piece In 2D art, composition occurs on the plane of the picture In 3D art, composition refers how the objects are organized in space Sculpture is an example of three-dimensional art Movements or patterns create rhythm Repeating elements (lines, shapes, colors, textures) portrays movement A motif is a single element of a pattern Quilts repeat of a motif to create a pattern Patterns are usually regular, with an underlying grid system Equally distributed weight creates balance 1 Art Power Guide | 9 Symmetrical balance Approximate symmetry - Elements repeat exactly around a central axis - May use horizontal or vertical axes Often seen in architecture - More monotonous and rigid - Varies color, detail, or position - Achieves visual balance by organizing unlike objects - Analogous to a seesaw: the heavier person must sit closer to the center to balance it - Seems informal, but more complex to attain Contrasting different elements of art creates visual interest One element contrasting the rest of the composition creates the focal point The eye rests on the focal point, which appears to dominate the composition The relative sizes of objects in an artwork create proportion Human scale controls our sense of proportion 2,500 years ago, Classical Greek sculptors developed standards for human proportions These sculptors decided an ideal human figure is 7.5 heads tall They also outlined specific facial measurements The corners of the eyes are The nose is The bottom of lips is chin and top of head halfway between the chin and corners of eyes chin and bottom of nose Ancient Greeks used these proportions to measure everything Artists adjust these proportions to suit changing beauty ideals Exaggerated and distorted proportions also create an expressive effect The size of an element relative to other parts of the work determines its scale Both vast scales and minute details attract interest The location and purpose of a piece influences the scale chosen by the artist Purposely exaggerating the scale of one object draws attention to it Ancient Art Studying ancient cultures Studying artifacts enabled us to learn about ancient cultures Artifacts made of durable materials such as stone, metal, or fired clay remain today We have fewer examples made of perishable materials like fibers and wood The climate of different cultures impacts the preservation of artifacts Egypt’s hot and dry climate helps preserve material like papyrus Egyptian tombs also played a role in preserving ancient artifacts West Africa’s humid climate does not suit artifact preservation as well As a whole, we only have limited and isolated examples to study from the Stone Age Other art pieces (from later times) survived longer due to favorable conditions The period lacked the cultural organization and population in which art thrives However, caves and tombs are well-suited for preserving art Art Power Guide | 10 Old Stone Age art Although initially dismissed as primitive, cave paintings involved skilled artists and important traditions such as hunting ceremonies France’s Chauvet Cave contains ancient cave paintings dating from c. 30,000 BCE Explorers discovered these paintings in 1994 They date from the Upper Paleolithic Period, also known as the Old Stone Age Ancient artists used red and minimal yellow ochre to complement black charcoal Animals depicted include horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalos, and mammoths France and Spain contain later cave paintings dating from c. 15,000 to 10,000 BCE Lascaux and Altamira house the most famous of these paintings Animals such as horses, bears, lions, bison, and mammoths appear in these caves Outlines of human hands appear as well, including a human figure in Lascaux Paintings from this period use black charcoal outlines with red and yellow ochre Other prominent artworks include small female statues, such as the Venus (Woman) of Willendorf (c. 28,000-25,000 BCE) The Venus of Willendorf figure stands 4 1/8 inches tall Such statues lack discernible facial features or limbs They have enlarged pubic areas, breasts, and bellies The statuettes probably acted as fertility figures Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic Period) The Mesolithic Period’s warmer weather allowed humans to live in rock shelters Paintings in eastern Spain confirm the existence of these shelters Historians estimate these paintings as dating from 7000 to 4000 BCE Humans are often shown individually and in groups, usually hunting animals New Stone Age (Neolithic Period) Stone formations replaced rock paintings as dominant art forms around 4000 BCE Rows or rings of gigantic, rough-hewn stones make these formations The stones measure up to 17 feet tall and weigh up to 50 tons As such, historians named them megaliths Appropriately, the culture surrounding these pieces is coined “megalithic” Stonehenge exemplifies these megalithic pieces It is located on the Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England Construction occurred around 2100 BCE in multiple phases Sarsen (sandstone) and bluestone compose concentric rings Bluestone rocks come from the area surrounding Stonehenge Large sarsen stones in post and lintel construction form the outer ring Bluestones compose the middle ring Large sarsen stones weighing up to 50 tons form the innermost five post and lintels A heel-stone stands vertically in the northeast, marking the point where the sun rises on the midsummer solstice from the middle of the horseshoe-shaped ring Ancient Mesopotamia The region between the Tigris River and Euphrates River gave rise to Mesopotamia It developed writing and arts simultaneously with Egypt However, fewer Mesopotamian art objects survive Egypt had better defenses than Mesopotamia, largely due to its natural barriers Mesopotamia fell to multiple invading forces Art Power Guide | 11 Sumer Akkad Guti NeoSumer Babylon Assyria NeoBabylon Mesopotamian artists used easily perishable material, resulting in few preserved art pieces Sumer (4000– 2334 BCE) created great sculptures and buildings Religious stepped pyramids, known as ziggurats, stood in the center of its cities Ziggurats replaced complex platform structures From 2334 BCE – 2150 BCE, the Akkadian dynasty ruled Mesopotamia Sargon of Akkad founded the dynasty Akkadians assimilated Sumerian culture, despite dealing with a language barrier Akkadian art emphasizes the monarchy, with the king demanding great loyalty Freestanding and relief sculptures depict the kings of this era The barbarous Guti seized control of the region around 2150 BCE for 50 years The Neo-Sumerian ruler, The King of Ur, regained control from the Guti Ziggurats are the most noteworthy artworks from this period They increasingly served administrative and economic functions rather than their original religious pu...
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  • Fall '19
  • History of painting,  Art historians

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