Classification of Bone Shapes.docx - Classification of Bone Shapes(6 1 Flat Bone 2 Long Bone 3 Short Bone 4 Irregular Bone 5 Sutural Bone minor 6

Classification of Bone Shapes.docx - Classification of Bone...

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Classification of Bone Shapes (6) 1. Flat Bone 2. Long Bone 3. Short Bone 4. Irregular Bone 5. Sutural Bone - minor 6. Sesamoid Bone - minor Flat Bones Are thin and flattened bones. They possess a broad flat surface for muscle attachment or protection of underlying organs. Include: sternum, ribs, scapula and certain skull bones. Long Bones Longer than wide. Have a shaft and bulbus ends found in upper and lower limbs Include: Humerus, clavicle, Radius, Ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalanges. Long portion = Diaphysis, Widens = Metaphysis, End = Epiphysis. Diaphysis Elongated shaft of a long bone. usually cylindrical shaft Provides leverage and weight support Compact bone with thin spicules of spongy bone extending inward Metaphysis Flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) of the bone and the epiphyseal plate at the end of the bone. Epiphysis End of a long bone. Knobby region at each end of long bone Composed of outer thin layer of compact bone & inner region of spongy bone In adults, the epiphyseal line, is the remnant of the epiphyseal plate Short Bones Cubed-shaped. Texture is spongy except for the thin layer of compact bone at the surface. Found in wrist and ankle Length nearly equal to width E.g., carpal bones (wrist bones), tarsals (foot bones), sesamoid bones (bones along tendons of some muscles), patella (kneecap) Irregular Bones
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5 Functions of Skeletal System 1. provide shape & support 2. enable movement 3. protect internal organs 4. hemopoiesis- stem cells produces blood cells 5. stores certain materials until body needs them (fats, calcium) 3 Types of Skeletal Cartilage hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage Hyaline Cartilage Attaches ribs to sternum Covers ends of some bones (articular) Cartilage within growth plates Forms the larynx, the costal cartilages of the ribs, and the embryonic skeleton, firm, structurally amorphous matrix heavily invaded with fibers; appears glassy and smooth. Elastic Cartilage Cartilage with abundant elastic fibers; more flexible than hyaline cartilage., Found in ear, epiglottis, Eustachian tube, eu-nose. Fibrocartilage A weight-bearing cartilage that withstands compression; forms the intervertebral discs, the pubic symphysis & cartilage pads of the knee joints (menisci). Spongy Bone Layer of bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone. Cancellous or trabecular bone Located internal to compact bone Appears porous 20% of bone mass Compact Bone Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone.
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