Classification of Bone Shapes (6)1. Flat Bone2. Long Bone3. Short Bone4. Irregular Bone5. Sutural Bone - minor6. Sesamoid Bone - minorFlat BonesAre thin and flattened bones. They possess a broad flat surface for muscle attachment or protection of underlying organs. Include: sternum, ribs, scapula and certain skull bones.Long BonesLonger than wide. Have a shaft and bulbus endsfound in upper and lower limbsInclude: Humerus, clavicle, Radius, Ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalanges. Long portion = Diaphysis, Widens = Metaphysis, End = Epiphysis.DiaphysisElongated shaft of a long bone.usually cylindrical shaftProvides leverage and weight supportCompact bone with thin spicules of spongy bone extending inwardMetaphysisFlared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) of the bone and the epiphyseal plate at the end of the bone.EpiphysisEnd of a long bone.Knobby region at each end of long boneComposed of outer thin layer of compact bone & inner region of spongy boneIn adults, the epiphyseal line, is the remnant of the epiphyseal plateShort BonesCubed-shaped. Texture is spongy except for the thin layer of compact bone at the surface. Found in wrist and ankleLength nearly equal to widthE.g., carpal bones (wrist bones), tarsals (foot bones), sesamoid bones (bones along tendonsof some muscles), patella (kneecap)Irregular Bones
5 Functions of Skeletal System1. provide shape & support2. enable movement3. protect internal organs4. hemopoiesis- stem cells produces blood cells5. stores certain materials until body needs them (fats, calcium)3 Types of Skeletal Cartilagehyaline, elastic, fibrocartilageHyaline CartilageAttaches ribs to sternumCovers ends of somebones (articular)Cartilage within growth platesForms the larynx, the costal cartilages of the ribs, and the embryonic skeleton, firm, structurally amorphous matrix heavily invaded with fibers; appears glassy and smooth.Elastic CartilageCartilage with abundant elastic fibers; more flexible than hyaline cartilage., Found in ear,epiglottis, Eustachian tube, eu-nose.FibrocartilageA weight-bearing cartilage that withstands compression; forms the intervertebral discs, the pubic symphysis & cartilage pads of the knee joints (menisci).Spongy BoneLayer of bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone.Cancellous or trabecular boneLocated internal to compact boneAppears porous20% of bone massCompact BoneHard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone.