The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789–1815Section 1 The French Revolution Begins Section 2 Radical RevolutionSection 3 The Age of NapoleonFRANCETHEWORLD17901800MAKING CONNECTIONS What makes a nation?The Arc de Triomphe is one of the national symbols of France. It was commissioned by Napoleon in 1806 to commemorate his Grand Army. Can you name some other national symbols of France? In this chapter you will learn how France became a nation.• What are some national symbols of the United States?• What are the characteristics of a nation?• What is nationalism?1789George Washington inaugurated as first U.S. president1793King Louis XVI executed; Reign of Terror begins 1799Napoleon leads coup d’état that topples French government1803United States purchases Louisiana Territory from France5741789French Revolution beginsBridgeman-Giraudon/Art Resource, NY, John Lamb/Getty Images
1815Identifying Create a Four-Door Book to record who, what, when,and wherefacts while you read about Napoleon Bonaparte.(ISTORY/.,).%Chapter Overview—Visit glencoe.comto preview Chapter 18.1812Napoleon invades Russia1815Napoleon defeated at the Battle of Waterloo1810Hidalgo leads Mexican independence movementWhatWhoWhenWhereJohn Lamb/Getty Images, (l) Art Archive/Antochiw Collection, Mexico/Mireille Vautier , (r) Art Archive/Musée de L’Armée, Paris/Dagli Orti
The French Revolution BeginsThe year 1789 witnessed two far-reaching events: the beginning of a new United States of America and the beginning of the French Revolution. Compared with the American Revolution, the French Revolution was more complex and more radical. The French Revolution established both a new political order and a new social order. For that reason, it is considered a turning point in European history. Background to the Revolution The Third Estate, the vast majority of the French people, was heavily taxed and discontented.HISTORY & YOU What if you had no say in family concerns despite doing all the household chores? Learn how the French people reacted to having no say in their government.French society had changed little since medieval times. Feudal-ism established the privileges and obligations of the three main social classes. Although there were clergy and wealthy landown-ers in the American colonies, there were no laws giving them spe-cial status, unlike the class system in France. This social injustice caused unrest in eighteenth-century France. France’s Three EstatesSince the Middle Ages, France’s population had been divided by law into one of three status groups, or estates.The First Estate consisted of the clergy, the Second Estate the nobles, and the Third Estate everyone else. Thus the Third Estate included anyone from the lowliest peasant to the wealthiest merchant.