Argumentative Writing ENG 226 Textbook.pdf - ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING ENG 226 Textbook Version 1.0 Licensing Information This text was adapted by Washtenaw

Argumentative Writing ENG 226 Textbook.pdf - ARGUMENTATIVE...

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ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING ENG 226 Textbook Version 1.0
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Licensing Information This text was adapted by Washtenaw Community College’s English/Writing Department under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) .
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In memory of Steve Novak beloved colleague, passionate teacher
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Table of Contents Chapter 1 Constructing Arguments .............................................................................. 1 Argument in College Writing ...................................................................................................... 1 Argument & Audience ................................................................................................................ 2 Engaging an Audience ............................................................................................................. 2 Developing an Audience Analysis ............................................................................................. 3 Finding Arguments ..................................................................................................................... 4 Using Prewriting ......................................................................................................................... 4 Journaling ............................................................................................................................... 4 Freewriting .............................................................................................................................. 5 Brainstorming ......................................................................................................................... 6 Mapping .................................................................................................................................. 7 Listing ..................................................................................................................................... 7 Other Prewriting Techniques .................................................................................................... 8 Introductions & Conclusions ..................................................................................................... 10 Introductions ......................................................................................................................... 10 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................... 13 Argumentative Thesis ............................................................................................................... 13 Drafting & Integrating .............................................................................................................. 16 Summarizing ......................................................................................................................... 16 Paraphrasing ......................................................................................................................... 17 Quoting ................................................................................................................................. 20 Signal Phrases ....................................................................................................................... 20 Revising & Editing a Research Paper ......................................................................................... 21 Chapter 2 Rhetorical Analysis Arguments .................................................................. 23 Ethos ........................................................................................................................................ 25 Constructing Your Argument with Ethos ................................................................................. 26 Pathos ...................................................................................................................................... 27 Constructing Your Argument with Pathos .............................................................................. 27 Logos ........................................................................................................................................ 29 Constructing Your Argument with Logos ................................................................................ 30 Fallacies to Watch Out For ........................................................................................................ 31 Avoiding Fallacies (And Making Your Argument Stronger) ...................................................... 33 Rhetorical Analysis ................................................................................................................... 34 Sample Rhetorical Analysis of an Article ................................................................................ 35 Sample Rhetorical Analysis of an Advertisement .................................................................... 41 Chapter 3 Definition Arguments ................................................................................ 49 Constructing Your Argument .................................................................................................... 50 Fallacies to Watch Out For ........................................................................................................ 52 Avoiding Fallacies (And Making Your Argument Stronger) ...................................................... 53 Sample Definition Arguments .................................................................................................. 54 Chapter 4 Causal Arguments ..................................................................................... 60 Constructing Your Argument .................................................................................................... 62 Fallacies to Watch Out For ........................................................................................................ 63 Avoiding Fallacies (And Making Your Argument Stronger) ...................................................... 64
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Sample Causal Argument ......................................................................................................... 65 Chapter 5 Evaluation Arguments ............................................................................... 72 Constructing Your Argument .................................................................................................... 73 Fallacies to Watch Out For ........................................................................................................ 74 Avoiding Fallacies (And Making Your Argument Stronger) ...................................................... 75 Sample Evaluation Argument ................................................................................................... 76 Chapter 6 Rebuttal Arguments .................................................................................. 82 Constructing Your Argument .................................................................................................... 85 Fallacies to Watch Out For ........................................................................................................ 86 Avoiding Fallacies (And Making Your Argument Stronger) ...................................................... 87 Sample Rebuttal Arguments ..................................................................................................... 88 Chapter 7 Proposal Arguments .................................................................................. 94 Constructing Your Argument .................................................................................................... 95 Fallacies to Watch Out For ........................................................................................................ 97 Avoiding Fallacies (And Making Your Argument Stronger) ...................................................... 98 Sample Proposal Arguments .................................................................................................... 99
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1 Chapter 1 Constructing Arguments Argument in College Writing In 1848, when Elizabeth Cady Stanton drafted “The Declaration of Sentiments,” she was thinking about how to convince New York State policy makers to change the laws to allow women to vote. Stanton, seen in the image on the right, was making an argument. Some consider all writing a form of argument—or at least persuasion. After all, even if you’re writing a letter or an informative essay, you’re implicitly trying to persuade your audience to care about what you’re saying. But, formal argument in academic writing is something specific. You may have been assigned persuasive essays in the past but didn’t have to use a formal argumentative structure. Some instructors differentiate persuasive writing and argumentative writing. Persuasive writing serves as a broader term for any kind of persuasion, and argumentative writing generally serves as a more specific term for a type of writing that follows certain argumentative structures. It relies heavily on logic and specific rhetorical strategies.
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