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Unformatted text preview: GET INVOLVED: STORIES OF THE CARIBBEAN POSTCOLONIAL BLACK MIDDLE CLASS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIL SOCIETY Kim N. Williams-Pulfer Submitted to the faculty of the University Graduate School in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Lilly Family School of Philanthropy, Indiana University August 2018 Accepted by the Faculty of Indiana University, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Doctoral Committee _________________________________ Dr. John H. Stanfield II, Co-Chair _________________________________ Dr. Jennifer Thorington Springer, Co-Chair March 7, 2018 _________________________________ Dr. Lehn Benjamin _________________________________ Dr. Brian Steensland ii Dedication To: Marc, Olive, Joelle, and Julian iii Acknowledgements There are many people that offered inspiration, hope, and encouragement throughout my doctoral journey. First of all, I wish to thank my husband Marc and my children Olive, Joelle, and Julian. I am eternally gratefully to have you all in my life. Thank you for your support and love. Thank you to my parents, Earlin and Clara Williams, for your commitment to my education and for instilling in me confidence in my abilities and talents along with a deep respect for others. Also, thank you to the rest of my family, especially my six amazing brothers. In their own individual ways, they taught me to read widely, think deeply, and to hold fast to a creative spirit. Many thanks also to my sisters-in-law, nieces, and nephews for your continued affirmations that I could run the race. I also want to thank my in-laws Gottfried and Theres Pulfer as well as the rest of my Swiss family. Thanks also to my best friends Ebony Beneby and Tamika Galanis for your continued support in everything that I do. To the entire Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy thank you for allowing me grow as a scholar. In particular, I wish to thank my dissertation committee. To my wonderful co-chairs, Dr. John Stanfield and Dr. Jennifer Thorington Springer, you exist as two halves of a critical influence in my life. To Dr. Stanfield, thank you for teaching me the foundations of African Diaspora scholarship along with the intersection of Philanthropic Studies. This project was undeniably shaped by your guidance. To Dr. Thorington-Springer, thank you for your loving, thoughtful, and consistent mentorship. I especially appreciated our connected passion and commitment for our Caribbean home. To Dr. Lehn Benjamin, I am grateful for all of your feedback on this project, but thanks for also helping me consider my scholarly identity as well as for your support throughout the entire doctoral program. Also to Dr. Brian Steensland, thank you for listening to me carefully, asking the right questions, and for providing me with critical insights as I wrestled with my research question and focus. Other faculty members that I wish to thank include: Dr. Dwight Burlingame - I owe my passion for Philanthropic Studies education to you. Thanks also to Dr. Emmett Carson for iv providing me with the incredible opportunity to learn more about the field. Many thanks to Dr. Tyrone Freeman, Dr. Shariq Siddiqui, Dr. Patrick Rooney, Dr. Rich Steinberg, and to rest of the faculty members. Thank you also to my talented colleagues. To Barb Duffy - my dear friend. Thank you for the countless hours of conversation and laughter, close reading on a variety of critical subjects, and mostly for your support. Thanks to my cohort mates, Xiaoyun Julia Wang and Dr. Fady Qaddourra. Other valuable colleagues I want to thank include: Dr. Angela Logan, Dr. Ruth Hansen, Tiara Dungy, Meng-Han Ho, Dr. Ellie Heng Que, Jim Alexander, Richard Clark, and Dr. Elizabeth Dale. It was my pleasure learning with you all. Thanks also to the staff, especially Suzy Lutz, Avis Frieson, and Mary Westerbeck. Thank you for your insight and warmth. Last but not least, thank you to the people of the Bahamas and the rest of the Caribbean including the scholars, civil society practitioners, government officials, and the many communities that made this project possible. Your enduring passion to “get involved” guides my intellect and imagination as well as my hope for a more inclusive and sustainable future. v Kim N. Williams-Pulfer GET INVOLVED: STORIES OF THE CARIBBEAN POSTCOLONIAL BLACK MIDDLE CLASS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIL SOCIETY The main research question of this project is: How do the narratives of Caribbean black middle class civil society within the bounds of the “post-postcolonial” state, explain the evolving yet current environment of local and postcolonial civil society development? Using the Bahamas as a case, this project explores the historical, political, cultural, and social conditions that supported the development of civil society within the context of a postcolonial society. Furthermore, an investigation via in-depth interviews, participation observation, archival, and contemporary document analysis contextualizes the present-day work of civil society leaders in the Bahamas. Methodologically, the project employs narrative analysis to uncover the perspectives, voices, and practices of black middle-class Bahamian civil society offering an unfolding, dynamic, and nuanced approach for understanding the historical legacies and contemporary structure of local civil society and philanthropy. The study focuses on three primary forms of narratives. These include the narratives of the past (historical), the narratives of expressive and aesthetic cultural practices, and the narratives of lived experience. The project locates that the development of civil society is linked to historical and cultural forces. The findings show that that the narratives of history, social, and artistic development foregrounds a hybrid model of civil society development drawn from the experience of slavery, colonialism, decolonization, as well as the emerging structures related to economic and political globalization. Furthermore, observed through resilience narratives, local civil society leaders negotiate the boundaries of hybridity in their understanding of their personal, social, and professional identities as well as the way in which they engage government, the public, as well as local and international funders. vi Dr. John H. Stanfield II, Co-Chair Dr. Jennifer Thorington Springer, Co-Chair vii Table of Contents Chapter 1. Introduction .................................................................................................................... 1 A New Vision for Caribbean Civil Society? ................................................................................ 1 Civil Society for Societal Improvement: Universal and Local Claims ........................................ 4 Research Question ....................................................................................................................... 6 Boundaries of the Study ............................................................................................................... 7 Significance of the Study ........................................................................................................... 10 Caribbean Cultural Identity and Social Change ......................................................................... 14 Cultural Identity, Social Identity, and Civil Society Development............................................ 15 Civil Society and the Dynamics of the Global South ................................................................ 18 The Significance of Citizenship and Democracy ....................................................................... 21 Narrative Inquiry Methods ......................................................................................................... 22 Dissertation Outline ................................................................................................................... 27 Connecting the Past and Future of Caribbean Civil Society ...................................................... 28 Chapter 2. Literature and Conceptual Review ............................................................................... 30 What is the Caribbean (Bahamas)? Early Formations ............................................................... 31 Social Forces .............................................................................................................................. 35 Culture and Cultural Identity ..................................................................................................... 43 Civil Society and Civic Engagement: Contemporary Visions ................................................... 52 Imagined Longings/ Assertions ................................................................................................. 57 Caribbean Civil Society and Civic Participation ....................................................................... 64 The Bahamas as a Case .............................................................................................................. 67 Chapter 3. Methodology ................................................................................................................ 74 Caribbean Studies and Interdisciplinarity .................................................................................. 74 Interpretivism and Narrative Inquiry ......................................................................................... 78 Narrative Methods ..................................................................................................................... 79 The Role of Relational Analysis ................................................................................................ 83 Narrative Analytical Contexts.................................................................................................... 84 A Final Note on the Role of Causality ....................................................................................... 90 Chapter 4. “And the People Are Outside”: Historical Narratives of Bahamian Civil Society ...... 94 Between Burma Road and The Red Cross ................................................................................. 94 Identity, Citizenship, and Civil Society ................................................................................... 106 Conceptual Narratives .............................................................................................................. 108 The Burma Road Riots: Claims for Rights and Movement Dynamics .................................... 110 Tracing Formations and Evolution .......................................................................................... 111 1) Friendly societies, mutual aid, and burial associations ................................................ 112 2) Riots, spontaneous protests, uprisings, and revolts actions ......................................... 114 3) Social and cultural uplift organizations ....................................................................... 117 4) Social welfare associations .......................................................................................... 118 5) Economic empowerment organizations ....................................................................... 119 6) Religious orders and groups......................................................................................... 120 7) The performative commons ......................................................................................... 122 8) Social movements ........................................................................................................ 123 9) The press of the alternative public sphere .................................................................... 128 Foundations and Networks of Inclusive Acceptance through Engagement ............................. 128 The Impact of Transnationalism .............................................................................................. 128 Networks of Association ...................................................................................................... 129 Citizenship and Belonging ................................................................................................... 130 The Public/Private-Formal/Informal-Spontaneous/Planned-Performance .......................... 131 Social Identity and Cultural Identity .................................................................................... 131 viii Engagement Beyond Black Lifeworlds ............................................................................... 133 Philanthropy, Civic Participation, and Civil Society ........................................................... 136 The Postcolonial: Narratives of Black Middle-Class Leaders ................................................. 138 Paul Adderley: The Past as Narrative Trajectory for the Future .......................................... 140 Doris Johnson: Narratives of the Present Awakening of Bahamians................................... 143 Lynden Pindling: Narratives of the Postcolonial Condition ................................................ 145 Postcoloniality and Independence ............................................................................................ 152 Requiem Narratives for a Quiet Revolution? ........................................................................... 156 Chapter 5. The Arts as Engagement and Identity: Narratives of Aesthetic and Expressive Cultural Practices ......................................................................................................................... 159 “There Are Ways to Get Involved”.......................................................................................... 159 Making the Case for Caribbean Art and Civil Society Formation ........................................... 164 Postcolonial Arts Politics, the Public Sphere, and Civil Society Development ....................... 168 Civil Society, the Arts, and Postcolonial Government ............................................................ 168 Caribbean Arts Practice, Identity, and The Public Sphere ....................................................... 174 Genre Approaches .................................................................................................................... 175 Architecture.......................................................................................................................... 175 Visual Arts and Culture ....................................................................................................... 177 Literary Arts ......................................................................................................................... 180 Junkanoo and Cultural Festivals .......................................................................................... 187 Postcolonial Arts and Civil Society Formations and Evolution............................................... 193 Chapter 6. Narratives of the Lived Experience: Mapping Landscapes, Cultural Identity, Resilience, and the Postcolonial .................................................................................................. 196 Mapping the Terrain ................................................................................................................ 198 Cultural Identity and the Development of Postcolonial Society .......................................... 202 Race, Gender, and Class .......................................................................................................... 221 Informal – Formal Networks.................................................................................................... 225 Civil Society Identities ............................................................................................................. 225 Resilience Narratives ............................................................................................................... 228 Chapter 7: Conjunctural Moments and Entangled Time: The Future of Civil Society and Cultural Identity ........................................................................................................................... 233 A Framework for Mapping Cultural Identity to Civil Society ................................................. 234 Philanthropy, Civil Society, and Civic Participation for the Global South.............................. 239 The Future of Research ............................................................................................................ 243 The Future of Postcolonial Civil Society ................................................................................. 243 References .................................................................................................................................... 246 Curriculum Vitae ix List of Tables Table 1. Organizational Formations That Support Cultural Identity and Civil Society Development ................................................................................................................................ 112 x List of Figures Figure 1. So Life Goes On, Red Cross Ball, 1942 ......................................................................... 95 Figure 2. Lady Oakes, pictured left, 1942...................................................................................... 95 Figure 3. R.T. Symonette, "Commodore of the Nassau Yacht Club," pictured right, 1942 .......... 95 Figure 4. The Happy Folk!, Nassau Magazine, Coronation Number, 1953 .................................. 97 Figure 5. Silhouette of young boy in peaceful scene, 1947 ........................................................... 98 Figure 6. Happy Andros Family, 1936 .......................................................................................... 98 Figure 7. Jockeys and trainers at the Hobby Horse Hall race track, 1947 ..................................... 99 Figure 8. Unnamed nurse cares for charge, 1947 .......................................................................... 99 Figure 9. Local singer, 1936 .......................................................................................................... 99 Figure 10. Naturally in Nassau, 1962 .......................................................................................... 101 Figure 11. How to find an old friend, 1962 ................................................................................. 101 Figure 12. Police band and guard of honour, 1962 ...................................................................... 101 Figure 13. Cultural Identity and the Development of Postcolonial Society: Interlocking associations between Space/Place, Power, & Social Identity .................................... 204 xi Chapter 1. Introduction Who what am I? My answer: I am the sum total of everything that went before me, of all I have been seen done, of everything done-to-me. I am everyone everything whose being-in-the-world affected was affected by mine. I am anything that happens after I've gone which would not have happened if I had not come. Nor am I particularly exceptional in this matter; each "I," every one of the now-six-hundred-million-plus of us, contains a similar multitude. I repeat for the last time: to understand me, you'll have to swallow a world. (Midnight’s Children, Salman Rushdie, 1980/2006, p. 535) The idea of white supremacy rests simply on the fact that white men are the creators of civilization (the present civilization, which is the only one that matters; all previous civilizations are simply contributions to our own) and are therefore civilization's guardians and defenders… It is precisely this black-white experience, which may prove of indispensable value to us in the world we face today. This world is white no longer, and it will never be white aga...
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