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Anat260 - Study Guide Quiz 4:part of midterm (Nervous System Part I).docx

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Anat 260 BL Study Guide (will be last 30/100 on midterm)CHAPTER 131.DIVISIONS OF NERVOUS SYSTEMoCentral nervous system (CNS) – associated with brain and spinal cordResponsible for integrating, processing, and coordinating sensory and motor inputSeat of intelligence, memory, learning, and emotionoPeripheral nervous system (PNS) – associated with tissue outside CNSProvides sensory information to CNS and carries motor commands away from CNSAfferent division (sensory component)SomaticVisceral Efferent division (motor commands) Somatic nervous system (SNS)Autonomic nervous system (ANS)Parasympathetic divisionSympathetic division2.NEURONS – nerve cells responsible for transfer and processing information in nervous systemoStructure – based on number of processes extending from cell bodySoma (cell body) – contains nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, and other organelles and inclusionsAxon – conducts nerve impulse toward axon terminalsDendrites – stimulated by environmental changes or activities of other cellsPerikaryon – neuron cytoplasmDendritic spinesNeurofilaments/neurotubules – make up neuron cytoskeletonNeurofibrils – bundles of neurofilamentsNissl bodies – clusters of free ribosomesAxon hillock – area where the initial segment connects to cell bodyAxoplasm – cytoplasm of axonCollaterals – branches off axonTelodendria – ends of axon and collateralsAxon terminals – affect another neuron or effector organ (muscle or gland)Axoplasmic transport – movement of material between cell body and axonsoStructural classification:Anaxonic – many processes but can’t differentiate between axons and dendrites. Found only in CNSBipolar – cell body between dendrite and axon. Axons are not myelinatedPseudounipolar – cell body is off to one side of axonMultipolar – typically has a single axon and multiple dendrites. Most common type in CNSoFunctional classification:Sensory neurons (afferent division)Axons are afferent fibersSends information from PNS to CNS
There are somatic sensory neurons and visceral sensory neuronsThree receptors: interoceptors, exteroceptors, proprioceptorsMotor neuronsAxons are efferent fibersSend information from CNS to peripheryConsist of two divisions

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