Carol Arellano Imperialism A.Global Inequality a.Global inequality was the gap between industrialising regions and the rest of the world. There was different access to education, healthcare, and technology. b.The gap was widened and institutionalized during the 1800s. B.The World Market a.The revolution in the transportation system (increase in railroads, steamships, and the Suez and Panama Canals) along with new communications systems (telegraph) encouraged international trade and encouraged European entrepreneurs to explore. b.Neo-Europeswere settler colonies with established populations of Europeans, such as North America, Australia, New Zealand, and Latin America, where Europeans found outlets for population growth and its most profitable investment opportunities in construction of railroads, ports, and utilities necessary to settle and develop the lands. The extension of Western economic power and construction of neo-Europes proved disastrous for indigenous peoples due to disease, liquor, and weapons. c.Independent countries raised tariffs to protect against cheap foreign imports destroying local industry. Great Britain and other European countries turned to colonies for new unprotected markets. C.New Imperialism a.New imperialism was the late-nineteenth century drive by European countries to create vast political empires abroad. b.Causes: i.Economic reasons= since there was no limit to supply and demand, European countries needed to find new markets to sell the products they could not sell domestically. There was also a need for cheap labor and a steady supply of raw materials. ii.Military and Political Reasons= naval vessels needed military bases and safe harbors around the world to refuel and restock. Germany’s (Bismarck), Russia’s and other countries’ political leaders manipulated colonial issues to divert pop attention from class struggle at home and create a false sense of national unity. iii.Religious= missionaries wanted to spread christianity and the “civilizing mission”, inspired by Rudyard Kipling’s “White Man’s Burden” showed there was the belief that Europeans could and should civilize more
primitive non white people and that imperialism would eventually provide nonwhites with modern achievements and higher standards of living. c.Social Darwinism served as a justification for imperialism. It was the belief that since the white race was the most modern and advanced one, and therefore the one better at surviving, they were the most fit according to survival of the fittest. d.Differences between the old and new imperialism i.Technological gaps such as better weapons allowed Europeans to easily spread across Africa ii.Instead of settling in the new colonies, European countries administered them.