African Americans in the EarlyRepublic and Antebellum FreeBlacks
Forces for blackfreedom afterthe AmericanRevolutionEnlightenment/revolutionary ethos (universalindividual rights, humanitarianism)Christian morality (Great Awakening)Economic change (industrialization/urbanization,market economy in the North)
Forces forFreedomNorthern emancipation: Fast in New England,gradual in Middle StatesEarly antislavery societies (Quakers), gradual,compensatedWhy did they oppose immediate emancipation?Northwest Ordinance of 1787Manumission in the Upper South (freeing by deedor will, free blacks in Upper South, Creole class =complexion influences social standing andidentity)What motivated masters to free their slaves?
Forces forSlaveryU.S. Constitution1. Delays abolishing the international slave trade2. Gives Congress the power to put down“insurrections” (basis of Fugitive Slave Act of 1793)3. Three-Fifths Clause (gives the South
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John E. Williams
Slavery in the United States, Christian morality, Manumission