Overview- Exam 1 - Overview: 1) Plato: The activity of...

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Overview: 1) Plato: The activity of philosophy: a) Basically its about Socrates and his discussion with euthyphro and their discussion on peity. b) Piety is strict adherence to morality with religious backing due to personal devotion c) Piety, then, is that which is dear to the gods and impiety is that which is not dear to them d) Being P and being loved by the gods is not the same thing e) Its morally right >>means>> gods command (b/c the bible says) f) Piety is what is pleasing the gods 2) Frankfurt: “On Bullshit” a) “deceptive misrepresentation” b) Truthful---------------------------------------------------------------------- Bullshit-------------------Lying c) bullshit seems to be intentional deceptive in some way, and have something to do with the way the speaker is presenting himself 3) Plato: Philosophy on Trial a) Socrates was brought to trial before the town assembly and was charged with corrupting the youth and not believing in the Athenians’ stories about the gods b) Socrates would rather be put to death as opposed to be dishonest c) Argument that Socrates does not intentionally corrupt the youth
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i. Either I intentionally corrupt young, unintentionally corrupt young, or don’t corrupt the young ii. I corrupt the young; I harm myself iii. No one intentionally harms himself iv. Either I don’t corrupt the young or I don’t do it intentionally d) It is not impossible for a good man to be harmed 4) Questions about Philosophy; Evaluating arguments a) Evaluating Philosophical Claims and Theories: i. Conceptual Clarity-everything explained ii. Consistency- not possible for both to be true iii. Rational coherence- no gaps in theories iv. Comprehensiveness- makes sense v. Compatibility with well-established facts and theories vi. Having the support of compelling argument b) Nature of arguments i. A set of statements in which one or more statements attempt to provide reasons for believing the truth of another statement ii. Deductive Validity- if the argument is valid 1. Valid if it’s impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false 2. Sound- if the premises are true iii. Modus Poens
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1. If P, then Q 2. P. 3. Therefore Q iv. Modus Tollens 1. If P, then Q 2. Not P 3. Therefore, not Q v. Hypothetical Syllogism 1. If P, then Q 2. If Q, then R 3. Therefore, if P, then R vi. Disjunctive Syllogism (either-or) 1. Either P or Q 2. Not P 3. Therefore, Q vii.Reductio ad Absurdum Arguments 1. Suppose A (the truth you want to refute) 2. If A, then B 3. If B, then C 4. If C, then Not-A 5. Therefore both, A and Not-A
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6. 5 is a contradiction, therefore the original assumption is false viii. Inference to best explanation- inductive, but most likely true 5) The Existence of God/Aquinas a) Views i. Theistic(Natural Theology)- objective evidence is required for religious belief, evidence is available, reasons for belief are available, god exists (based on reason) ii. Atheistic Evidentialism- rational thought, evidence is required
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course PHIL 1000 taught by Professor Farnham during the Spring '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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Overview- Exam 1 - Overview: 1) Plato: The activity of...

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