Test One Notes

Test One Notes - Chapter One What is Science How do you...

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Chapter One: What is Science? How do you find evidence? o Experiments, polls Is it believable? Accurate? o Who did you ask? How many people did you poll? Which brands did you use? 4 ways to collect knowledge (unscientific ways) o Tenacity : accept a particular thought because of tradition Ex: don’t swim ½ an hour after you eat or you will drown—wives tales; folk lore) Not valid because we have no proof, no one really has tested these theories and there is no way to correct these ideas because of they are already believed by many people. o Authority : accept an idea that is true because a respected source says it is Ex: teachers/doctors/politicians/parents Advertising agents use this method because we tend to take more from people with authority Not always accurate b/c authority may be wrong o Reason : use logic to acquire new information Logical syllogism 1. All women can cook 2. Kacy is a woman 3. Therefore, Kacy can cook Not accurate because if you start with a wrong assumption, then you can end up with a wrong conclusion o Empiricism : collecting knowledge by using your experience and perception—rely on our own senses However, we as humans often have the wrong perceptions which can give a wrong source of knowledge (someone who appears rude may just be having a bad day. . just found our her mom died) Fundamental attribution : we assume people act the way they do based on internal personality traits. As an individual, we have personal bias placing good things we do on fundamental attribution but the bad things on environmental factors.
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Errors because of this as well as lack of diversity o Science : attempts to collect knowledge through careful observation and collection of data In some ways, science is a combination of empirical and reason Good: universal way to collect knowledge, allowing others to obtain the same information Psychologist believe: psychology is different Four Objectives of Science o Description : ability to find and describe the object of interest (behavior? consequences of behavior? how others interpret it?) o Explanation : ability to explain WHY something exists and WHAT causes it (what causes disorder? How long? Etc) o Prediction : ability to anticipate the occurrence if an event (how it came about? Who is most likely to have it? What type of treatment?) o Optimization : we want people to be as happy, productive, and satisfied in their life as possible (what will minimize pain? Help/cure others?) Characteristics of Science o Elimination : of influence from outside variables *control* one of the biggest components (test between lecture vs. video—start out with same level of knowledge, same age, same motivation) o Operational Definitions : in research- a very concrete definition of a term (so that research study reads clearly to others not involved) precise definitions reduces the risk of misinterpretation by others o Objectivity : stick to data; don’t put your own interpretation on results (often assigning
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course PSYC 2980 taught by Professor Driscoll during the Spring '08 term at UGA.

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Test One Notes - Chapter One What is Science How do you...

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