Test 1 Notes

# Test 1 Notes - Statistics Chapter 1 What is Statistics o...

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Statistics Chapter 1 What is Statistics? o The art and science of designing studies and analyzing the data that those studies produce o Its ultimate goal is translating data into knowledge and understanding of the world around us o Basically. . the art and science of learning from data Statistical methods o Design : planning how to obtain data to answer the question of interest o Description : summarizing the data obtained o Inference : making decisions and predictions based on that data Descriptive Statistics o Utilizes numerical and graphical methods to look for patterns, to summarize and to present the information in sample data Inferential statistics o Utilizes sample data to make estimations, decisions, or other predictions about a population and measure their reliability (need probability) Introduction to basic terms o Population : an entire collection of subjects(persons or objects) whose properties are to be analyzed o Sample : subset if the population o Variable : a characteristic about each subset of a population or sample o Parameter : a numerical value summarizing the population data, a constant/truth [remember by: p in population] o Statistic : a numerical value summarizing the sample data, an estimate/vary [remember by: s in sample] Randomness an variability

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o Random sampling : each subject in the population has the same chance of being in the sample This is desirable because this sample tends to be a good reflection of the population Randomization is also important to good experimental design o Variable : the measurements we make of a variable vary from subject to subject Likewise, results of descriptive and inferential statistics vary, depending on the sample chosen What role do computers play? o Computer applications perform the calculations for data analysis o Data is organized in a data file subject(row) variable (column) Chapter 2 (2.1) what are the types of data? Variable : characteristic of a subject about which information is sought Two types: o Categorical : each data value belongs to one of a set of data (gender, major, color)- almost always words Ex: the average social security # or zip code would make no sense o Quantitative : each data value takes numerical values that represent different
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Test 1 Notes - Statistics Chapter 1 What is Statistics o...

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