APUSH Summer Notes.pdf - APUSH Summer Notes I Chapter One A...

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APUSH Summer Notes I.Chapter One A.Shaping of North America 1.Pangaea = supercontinent 2.Canadian shield: zone undergirded by ancient rock (above sea level) a)“Glacial action” of post-Ice Age = Great Lakes B.Peopling the Americas 1.Dropping sea levels during Great Ice Age = land bridge between Eurasia and Americas 2.First peoples = nomadic Asians following game 3.By 1492 = 54 million people with different languages, religions, and cultures (tribes) 4.Incas = Peru 5.Aztecs = Mexico 6.Maize (Indian corn) = important staple food a)Fed large populations b)Went from hunting-gathering to agriculture C.The Earliest Americans 1.Societies = more sophisticated in South America (Inca, Aztec, etc.) 2.Nation-states with effective leadership = non-existent in North America (ease with which they were conquered due to disorganization) a)Cahokia = one of few North American settlements (Mississippi)
3.Three-sister farming: simultaneous growing of corn, beans, and squash for efficiency/efficacy 4.Iroquois Confederacy: only rival to empires of Mexico/Peru (political/organizational skills with military alliance) 5.North American native peoples = matrilineal cultures (power/possessions passed down female line) 6.Natives = revered nature with spiritual properties → Europeans = dominion over earth with technologies D.Indirect Discoveries of the New World 1.Ambitious governments hoping for conquest/trade = drive toward Asia, penetration of Africa, and “discovery” of Americas 2.Military campaign of Crusaders = contact with Asia through Holy Land (luxuries of East) 3.Muslim middlemen = heavy taxes on Eastern goods (Ottomans) E.Europeans Enter Africa 1.Accounts from Marco Polo (whether real or fabricated) = further stimulated European interest in East 2.Portuguese designed caravel for smooth sailing into wind (new routes to Asia) 3.South Africa = no contact with Europeans → gold trading posts along shore after caravel
4.Arabs and Africans = slave trade for centuries on smaller scale (disrupted African communities and cultures/identities) 5.Slavery shaped plantation system → big business of New World 6.Kingdom of Spain = united under Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile a)Expulsion of Muslim Moors (ended Christian-Islamic warfare in Spain) F.Columbus Comes Upon a New World 1.Sponsored by Spain 2.Did not land in Indies → landed in Bahamas after six weeks (successful failure) 3.Europe = markets, capital, and technology → Africa = labor → Americas = raw materials (globalization for better/worse) G.When Worlds Collide 1.Columbian Exchange = clashing of two ecosystems with repercussions 2.“American” foodstuff = revolutionary to population growth in Europe/Africa 3.European disease = 90% depopulation in New World H.The Conquest of Mexico and Peru 1.Treaty of Tordesillas = split South America between Portugal/Spain 2.Encomienda = slavery/Christianizing mission (opposed by Bartolome de las Casas)
3.Conquest in Americas by conquistadors = fall of great empires in matter of weeks 4.Capitalism in West with merge of “American”/European markets I.

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