Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests: Mammograms Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the United States and is the second leading cause of cancer death in women (Ball, Dains, Flynn, Solomon, & Stewart, 2015). Early detection through screening is extremely important for early treatment. There are a few assessment modalities for screening asymptomatic women for breast cancer; one is the largely popular screening tool called a Mammogram. Diagnostic mammography is indicated in women ages 30 years and older to assess clinical findings such as a palpable lump, persistent focal area of pain or tenderness, nipple discharge, redness, and peau d’ orange (dimpled; orange peel like) appearance of the skin (Dains, Baumann, & Scheibel, 2016). Mammography is of less diagnostic value in women younger than age 30 because of the density of the breast tissue (Dains et al, 2016). Screening mammography for women, with or without clinical breast examination, is recommended every 1 to 2 years for women age 40 years and older (Sullivan, 2019). History or documentation of cyclic changes in lumps or the presence of glandular breast tissue on a mammogram supports a clinical diagnosis of benign disease (Dains et al, 2016). While the mammography is the primary screening modality associated with lower incidence of breast cancer mortality it also causes increased overdiagnosis and “false alarms” (Kiefer & Chong, 2018). The Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool classify 15% or less of
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- Summer '15
- Prostate cancer, ball