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EVENT MANAGEMENT and EVENT TOURISM
Second Edition, 2004
Donald Getz, PhD
Professor, Haskayne School of Business
University of Calgary, Canada PREFACE and CONTENTS The fields of event management and event tourism have grown dramatically since I wrote
Festivals, Special Events and Tourism in 1991, and even since 1997 when the first edition of
Event Management and Event Tourism was published. Many new career paths have emerged,
and the publication of relevant books and papers has mushroomed. Academic programs in event
management are now well established in many institutions around the globe. Both the academic
study of event management and the profession are maturing.
It is also now possible to talk seriously about a new academic field called “Event Studies”.
In 1991 there was very little literature, and only a few subjects taught about events, generally
within tourism, recreation or sports programs. Now it is possible to get graduate degrees specific
to event studies. Event Studies is a field of inquiry drawing on many other sources of theory,
knowledge and methods. Creation of Festival Management and Event Tourism, (now called
Event Management) as the first research journal devoted to this field (in 1993), co-founded by
myself and Dr. Bruce Wicks, gave impetus to the academic study of events.
Event Studies subsumes event management and event tourism. To become a professional in
event management or event tourism requires foundation knowledge concerning the nature of
events and their importance in society. If they were not such important phenomena why would
we invest so much in their production and marketing?
This book is really the second edition of Event Management and Event Tourism (Cognizant
1997), but it has a somewhat broader role to play, both in providing an overview of Event Studies
and providing a foundation for professional event management. I have deliberately expanded the
discussion of research, theory and the contributions of other fields and disciplines, as well as
updated and expanded all the management-specific material.
Key Objectives of the Book:
(1) To define and explain the field of Event Studies as an academic foundation to the
professions and practice of event management and event tourism.
(2) To provide a comprehensive, systematic study of events as social, economic and
(3) To provide students with the knowledge and skills for event management careers.
(4) To explain the nature and importance of event tourism, and how to employ events
in destination planning and marketing.
(5) To interpret and apply principles of business, public, and not-for-profit
management to the special needs of events and event organizations.
(3) To use case studies of successful events in demonstrating how managers can
improve their effectiveness and efficiency in producing successful events and
meeting their organization's wider goals.
(4) To demonstrate how different perspectives on events (i.e., economics, community,
visitors, organizations, sponsors, the environment) require different management
approaches, and how recognition of the inter-relatedness of all these perspectives
can enhance event production, marketing, and goal attainment.
(5) To foster professionalism in event management, covering the knowledge base,
theory, methodologies and ethics. This book is specifically intended to be a college and university level text. Compared to the
majority of event-related books it places less emphasis on how to produce events, and more on
the following: underlying theory and knowledge from contributing disciplines and related fields
the value and specific contributions of research
integrative themes and methods
discussion of important issues
the necessity and nature of ethics in professionalism
application of fundamental management theories and practices I decided to keep the Event Tourism theme, in part because none of the other books on event
management include it. Events are of profound importance in tourism and hospitality and the
tourism market is important to many event producers, so it makes sense to combine the two.
In addition to a separate chapter on event tourism planning for destinations, I have also
integrated this theme throughout the book. Look for specific event tourism topics in the overall
chapter outline, as well as in the chapter-specific learning objectives.
Revisions Made For The Second Edition
In addition to the emphasis placed on establishing Event Studies as a legitimate field of inquiry,
and Event Management as a profession, other changes have been made to the format and contents
of the book: chapters begin with learning objectives (which encompass pertinent management
chapters end with basic and advanced study questions (the advanced questions are more
suitable for assignments and essays)
internet addresses and sources are provided throughout the text, especially with
regard to organizations and events that are profiled
expanded sections on risk management, project planning, sponsorship, legal issues
including contracts, and logistics
“research notes” provide important findings from published sources on many topics
discussed in the chapters; these should encourage students and practitioners to consult the
more comprehensive coverage of the diversity of event careers and settings
many examples have been kept, but updated and expanded, while some have been
replaced with new ones. New For Instructors
Instructors using this text now have online access to an Instructor‟s Manual including a full set of
Powerpoint slides (both summary points from the text and all the line drawings). The manual
provides lecture outlines and advice on how to use the case studies, profiles and research notes.
Although this book has been carefully researched and is very comprehensive in its examination
of event management, the event producer and manager must take ultimate responsibility for
ensuring that proper care is taken to operate a safe, financially sound, and enjoyable event. The
contents of this book are intended to inform and stimulate the event manager and are not to be
interpreted as firm advice that can be applied to any specific situation. 3 4
Many people provided information and ideas for this book, however, I take full responsibility for
any errors or misinterpretation of the facts.
General thanks go to all the researchers and authors cited in this book, and the entire research
community that continues to develop the event managememnt field and event studies.
Special thanks are given to the following persons and organizations who made specific
contributions to this book, particularly in writing sections and granting permission to use
material. Bethlehem Musikfest (Jo Pritchett)
Betsy Wiersma (Wiersma Experience Marketing and Creative Event Development)
Calgary Exhibition and Stampede (Dan Sullivan, Sandee Wahl, Leslie Stang)
Canadian Tulip Festival (Michel Gauthier)
Cherry Creek Arts Festival (Tony Smith)
Chicago Mayor‟s Office of Special Events (Cindy Gatziolis)
Concepts Worldwide (Theresa Breining)
e=mc2 event management (Ken Christofferson and Jocelyn Flanagan)
ESPN (Melissa Gullotti)
Gold Coast Events (Cameron Hart)
GotEvent, Gothenburg Sweden (Toralf Nilsson)
International Association for Exhibition Management (Cathy Breden)
International Association of Fairs and Exhibitions (Rachel Stutesmun)
International Festivals and Events Association (Steve Schmader)
International Special Events Society (Kevin Hacke)
Meeting Professionals International (Kelly Schulz)
Orange County Convention Center (Shannon Cooper, Julie Snith)
Portland Rose Festival (Adrian McCarthy)
Queensland Events Corporation (Sharyn Sawyer, Fiona Lammie)
Tourism Ottawa (Martin Winges)
Volvo Event Management (Sven Osterberg)
William O‟Toole, Event Project Management System Pty Ltd.
The Journal of Travel Research has granted permission to use two diagrams published in JTR,
Vol. 39(4) 2001. 4 5
CHAPTER OUTLINE AND CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION TO EVENT STUDIES, EVENT MANAGEMENT AND
EVENT TOURISM Do You Want To Be A Professional Event Manager?
What Is Event Management?
Disciplinary Perspectives On Events
Event Management Within Closely Related Fields
What Is Event Tourism?
Typology Of Planned Events CHAPTER TWO: EVENT MANAGEMENT CAREERS AND PROFESSIONALISM Professionalism Specialized Career Paths In Event Management Levels Of Management And Managerial Knowledge And Skills A Model Of The Event Management System Profiles Of Professionals
CHAPTER THREE: PLANNING EVENTS What Is Planning? Project Planning And Management The Business Plan The Strategic Plan (including Force-Field Analysis)
CHAPTER FOUR: SITE PLANNING, OPERATIONS AND LOGISTICS Planning The Venue Or Site The Operations Plan And Logistics Planning For “Green” And Sustainable Events
CHAPTER FIVE: DESTINATION PLANNING FOR EVENT TOURISM Tourism Trends that Influence the Events Sector Event Tourism Planning and Policy Event Tourism Strategies And Tactics Leveraging Events And The Legacy Research For Event Tourism Planning CHAPTER SIX: THE EVENT EXPERIENCE, PROGRAMMING, and QUALITY
5 6 Program Planning
Developing A Program Portfolio
The Program Life Cycle
The Quality Of Events
Quality Management CHAPTER SEVEN: ORGANIZATION and CO-ORDINATION Perspectives on Event Organizations Organizational Structures For Events Managing Not-For-Profit Associations Organizational Culture The Learning Organization
CHAPTER EIGHT: HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT What is Human Resource Management? The HR Planning Process Motivation Theory Motivating and Managing Volunteers
CHAPTER NINE: ACQUIRING RESOURCES AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Where‟s The Money? The Price of Admission Sponsorship Financial Management
CHAPTER TEN: SAFETY, HEALTH, RISK MANAGEMENT AND SECURITY Special Hazards And Threats Associated With Events The Comprehensive Health And Safety Plan The Comprehensive Risk Management Plan Alcohol Risk Management Crowd Management And Control Legal Issues
CHAPTER ELEVEN: MARKETING The Marketing Concept and Marketing Mix Marketing Planning and Measuring Demand Segmentation and Selecting Target Markets A Benefits Model for Target Marketing Generic Marketing Strategies
CHAPTER TWELVE: MARKET RESEARCH – UNDERSTANDING THE CUSTOMER Why Do people Attend Events? Consumer Research on Events
6 7 Visitor and Market Area Surveys
Attendance Counts and Estimates CHAPTER THIRTEEN: COMMUNICATIONS & SALES The Communications Mix Sales Developing and Communicating a Positive Image Packaging
CHAPTER FOURTEEN: EVALUATION AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT Evaluation Concepts and Methods Economic Impact Measurement and Evaluation Evaluation of Overall Costs and Benefits REFERENCES
INDEX 7 8
LIST OF FIGURES
1-1: Studying Event Management
1-2: Economic and Tourism Roles of Events
1-3: What Makes Event “Special”?
1-4: Typology of Planned events
2-1: Event Management System
3-1: Project Planning Process
3-2: Task Analysis
3-3: Critical Patch Network
3-4: Gantt Chart
3-5: Strategic Planning Process
4-1: Festival Places: Factors Affecting Design
4-2: Operations Planning Process and Elements
4-3: Operations Checklist
4-4: Environmental System for Events
5-1: Sample Goals and Objectives for Event Tourism
5-2: Roles and Strategic Choices
5-3: Event Tourism Portfolio
5-4: Event Bidding Process
5-5: Tourist Segments Associated With Events
5-6: Media Management – Stakeholder Roles and Actions
5-7: Resource Supply and Appraisal
6-1: Elements of Style
6-2: Program Portfolio
6-3: Program Life Cycle
6-4: Interactions Shaping Event Quality
6-5: Service Mapping (a)
6-6: Service Mapping (b)
6-7: Quality Gaps
7-1: Perspectives on Events
7-2: Organizations Producing Events and Their Main Goals
7-3: Multi-Organizational Event Structures
7-4: Typical Sport Event Organizational Models
7-5: Not-For-Profit Event Organization With Board of Directors and Paid Staff
7-6: Project Management Organization
7-7: Organizational Chart for a Not-for-Profit Event Incorporating a Function-Based Committee
System (No Paid Staff)
7-8: Function-Based Committee System For Event Associations With Paid Staff
7-9: Program-Based Matrix Structure
7-10: Life-Cycle and Professionalism
7-11: Organizational Culture, Evolution, and Strategic Planning in Event Organizations
8-1: Human Resource Planning Process for Events
8-2: Types of Measurement for Performance Appraisals
9-1: Break-Even Analysis
9-2: Event Sponsorship Framework
9-3: Combined Line-Item and Program Budget
10-1: Risk Prioritization Matrix
10-2: Security Checklist
11-1: The Marketing Mix for Events
11-2: Positioning an Event
11-3: Marketing Planning Process
11-4: Segmentation Variables for Events
11-5: Benefits Model for Targeted Marketing
11-6: Practical Segmentation and marketing Strategy
12-1: Needs, Motives and Benefits Offered by Events
12-2: Seeking and Escaping Motivational Theory
12-3: Framework for Evaluating Event Motivations and Behavior
12-4: Consumer Decision-Making Process for Events
12-5: Sample Visitor Survey Questions
13-1: Advantages and Disadvantages of Advertising Media for Events
13-2: Public relations and Communications Tools for Events
13-3: Event Tourism Packaging
13-4: Framework for Targeted Event Packaging
14-1: Basic Data Needs and Methods for Event Evaluation
14-2: The Event Income Multiplier
LIST OF TABLES
3-1: American Generations
14-1: Canadian Tulip Festival - Profile and Economic Impact
14-2: Benefit-Cost Ratio for the 1985 Grand Prix
INTRODUCTION TO EVENT STUDIES, EVENT MANAGEMENT AND EVENT TOURISM
1: Be able to explain the field of “event studies”.
2: Understand the essential elements and foundations of event management as a profession.
3: Understand the nature and importance of event tourism, including the 5 main economic roles
4: Know the key disciplinary perspectives on the study of events and how they contribute to
5: Know where events fit into closely-related professional fields.
6: Learn about the nature and importance of events in society, the economy and the environment,
and how research is essential to support both event studies and event management.
7: Learn key terminology for the events field and the typology of planned events.
8: Understand what makes some events “special”. DO YOU WANT TO BE A PROFESSIONAL EVENT MANAGER?
The profession of event management is exciting, fast-growing and global. It presents a
kaleidoscope of opportunities for careers in public, private and not-for-profit organizations, and
for personal challenges and artistic creativity. You can apply your skills to all types of events in
many different event facilities and settings, or concentrate on sports, festivals, meetings,
exhibitions or other specific types. The scope for invention and mobility is almost limitless.
Or you could start an event-related business, being a party or meeting planner, a sport marketing
consultant, a festival or entertainment producer, or a trade show designer. Knowledge of how
events are produced, managed and marketed will give you countless opportunities to provide the
industry with services and products for profit.
Events are also very important as social services and for fund raising to support a large number
of causes, giving you scope to contribute to society and the environment. Whatever your motives
and interests, there is something for you in the world of events.
To start thinking seriously about event-related career paths, read the profiles of professionals in
this text. Also read the profiles of event-producing organizations, each of which provides a
number of career paths related to events.
WHAT IS EVENT MANAGEMENT?
“Event management” encompasses the planning and production of all types of events, including
meetings and conventions, exhibitions, festivals and other cultural celebrations, sport
competitions, entertainment spectaculars, private functions and numerous other special events.
Event managers might also be required to form and administer the organizations that produce or
govern events. Skills in event management will also be useful for careers in related fields such as
tourism, hospitality, arts, culture, sports, recreation and leisure.
Event management used to be a sideline to other occupations; something one did because events
were required. Or people became event planners and managers because their particular skills
were needed, and they could adapt. All that has changed, and within the last fifteen years event
management has been given formal academic status in many colleges and universities. Today‟s
event manager is better educated, much more sophisticated in terms of the fundamental
management skills, and more versatile. What‟s more, there are numerous other professionals,
such as in sport, recreation or arts management, who need to study event management in order to
fulfill their responsibilities.
At the same time, the event “industry” has surged ahead in terms of the number and size of
events, their economic, cultural and social significance, and media coverage. There is no room
for unprofessional conduct, and demands for professional accountability are ever-increasing.
What‟s more, today‟s professional event manager has skills and experience that can adapt to all
types of events in many different settings; it is no longer desirable or necessary to be confined to
one specific event-related job within a company, facility or organization.
In this book all the fundamentals of event management are provided for the student interested in
a professional career, or interested in adding event management to other professional skill sets.
Readers will first be presented in this chapter with the academic context for their profession - a
field I have termed Event Studies. You will see how it is necessary to draw on many other
disciplines and fields, plus the basics of management, before specializing in one or more aspects
of event management. Readers will also be informed of the ways in which events are produced
and managed as part of sports, arts, hospitality and other professional management careers.
Chapter Two gets to the heart of event management careers and professionalism. A number of
professionals are profiled, as well as professional associations representing the key
specializations within event management. Certification and ethics are discussed in this context.
In the subsequent chapters key management functions are covered in detail, including planning,
organizing, marketing and evaluation. Special attention is given to a number of topics of crucial
significance within the world of events, such as risk management, project planning, sponsorship
and logistics. Throughout the book the connections between events and tourism are stressed.
Tourism is not covered in depth in most event management texts, but I believe it is important for
students of tourism to understand how events are managed, and for event managers to know
more about the important tourism market and the tourism-related roles and impacts of events.
Not only are events produced increasingly by professional event managers, but a field of study
and research has recently developed to support this profession and its industry. Professionals
calling themselves “event manager” should be able to explain what is unique about events, why
they are important to society and the economy, and how they are evolving. If your career or job
involves the production, co-ordination, marketing or evaluation of events, you want to know that
your efforts are important and valued.
“Event studies” is a field of research and teaching focused on the nature and importance of events
in society, the economy and the environment. Learning more about events directly contributes to
increased professionalism in event management. Event studies borrows from other fields and
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