Soc 145_ Main Points .pdf - 1 Theories Control Theory...

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1 Theories Control Theory Social Bonds (Hirschi) Self Control (Gottfredson & Hirschi) Labeling Theory Takes the definition of deviance as a social reality that has been constructed Sometimes through the work of moral entrepreneurs Once labels of deviance have been invented, not everyone who breaks the norm is detected and labeled as a deviant. Deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to the offender (Becker) Learning Theory Deviant behavior is learned in interaction with valued others (esp intimate others like friends and family) We learn techniques, motives, drives, rationalizations and attitudes favorable/ unfavorable to deviance (aka definitions) A person will engage in deviance because of excess definitions favorable to violation of the norms over definitions unfavorable to norm violations 1. Differential Association 2. Subcultural Theory Strain Theory: Strain occurs as a reaction to anomie (structurelessness) Conformity: Accept cultural goals and institutional means Innovation: accepts cultural goals but not institutional means Ritualism: does not accept cultural goals but does accept institutionalized means Retreatism: rejects cultural goals and institutionalized means, give up on it altogether/find a way to escape it Rebellion: reject the goals and means and replaces them Heckert & Heckert’s Typology of Deviance Negative deviance: Underconformity or non-conformity that results in negative reactions. Rate Busting: Over conformity that is negatively evaluated. Deviance admiration: Under conformity or nonconformity that is positively evaluated. Positive Deviance: Over conformity that receives positive reactions. Neutralizations: Denial of injury Denial of victim Condemn the condemners
2 appeal Prostitution: Jenness, V. From sex as sin to sex as work: COYOTE and the reorganization of prostitution as a social problem 1. Women choose this profession; not victims 2. Liberated women, feminist, choose to do what their own body 3. Agreeing corruption with police officers, burning corruption

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