Social Bonds (Hirschi)
Self Control (Gottfredson & Hirschi)
Takes the definition of deviance as a social reality that has been
Sometimes through the work of moral entrepreneurs
Once labels of deviance have been invented, not everyone who breaks
the norm is detected and labeled as a deviant.
Deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a
consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to the
Deviant behavior is learned in interaction with valued others (esp
intimate others like friends and family)
We learn techniques, motives, drives, rationalizations and attitudes
favorable/ unfavorable to deviance (aka definitions)
A person will engage in deviance because of excess definitions
favorable to violation of the norms over definitions unfavorable to
Strain occurs as a reaction to anomie (structurelessness)
Accept cultural goals and institutional means
accepts cultural goals but not institutional means
does not accept cultural goals but does accept
rejects cultural goals and institutionalized means, give up
on it altogether/find a way to escape it
reject the goals and means and replaces them
Heckert & Heckert’s Typology of Deviance
Underconformity or non-conformity that results
in negative reactions.
Over conformity that is negatively evaluated.
Under conformity or nonconformity that is
Over conformity that receives positive reactions.
Denial of injury
Denial of victim
Condemn the condemners