First Quarter American Government Notes Chapter 1 Section 1 Principles of Government 1. The state a. state=Latin-stare-”to stand” b. nation=independent country/state Essential Features of a State a. population b. territory c. sovereignty d. government 2. Population a. consensus=agreement of basic beliefs b. ^political/social=most stable c. Change of personal address=^south 3. Territory a. boundary changes i. war, negotiations, purchase 4. Sovereignty a. state=supreme authority within boundaries b. complete independence i. laws ii. foreign policy iii. course of action c. can’t interfere with another state d. powerful states i. economic ii. military 5. Government a. Institution in each state Theories of the Origin of the State 1. Evolutionary Theory a. state evolved from family b. Extended family-100s of people c. More organization 2. Force Theory a. people under authority-1 person 3. Divine Right Theory a. leaders chosen by God(s) b. Egyptians, Chinese, Aztecs c. oppose monarch=oppose God 4. Social Contract Theory
a. “in a state of nature” no government exists i. Thomas Hobbes b. people surrender-->state protection c. ^maintain order d. John Locke-1688 i. King James II forced out ii. William and Mary of Orange iii. Locke defended King James II e. American colonies revolt The Purposes of Government a. maintain social order b. provide public services c. national security and common defense d. provide for and control economy 2. Maintaining social order a. learning to live in groups without conflict b. resolving conflicts 3. Providing public services a. public systems i. Sewer b. enforcing laws i. health, protection 4. Nation security a. Defense and security of state b. Trade with other countries 5. Economic decisions a. Material scarcity i. conflict b. Economic stability i. trade What is Government? ● Government is the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies. The State ● Population ○ People ● Territory ○ Land and boundaries ● Sovereignty ○ Power to make laws without any other authority ● Government ○ Political organization Nation v. State
Four Origins of a State ● Evolutionary Theory ○ Argues that the states evolved naturally out of the early family. ● Force Theory ○ Argues that one person or a small group of people took control of an area and forces all within it to submit to that person's or group's rule. ○ Benefit-king provides all ○ Disadvantage- king can take all ● Divine Right Theory ○ Holds that God created that the state and that God gives those of royal birth a “divine right” to rule (could be an entire family). ○ People are often told, “if you oppose the monarch, you oppose God.” ● Social Contract Theory ○ Argues that the state arose out of a voluntary act of free people. ○ Thomas Hobbes Four Main Purposes of the Government 1. Maintain social order (keep order inside) 2. Provide public services 3.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 48 pages?