Biology Research.docx - The Ichthyology of fishes in...

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The Ichthyology of fishes in Gingoog City CollegesA Research Proposal presented toThe Faculty of the Senior High School DepartmentGingoog City CollegesIn partial fulfillment of the requirementFor General Biology IIIlano, Danica MaeMaghanay, Kent RoiGrade 12 STEM B_________________Date of Submission
CHAPTER ITHE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPEIntroduction:Fish, any of approximately 34,000C species of vertebrate animals (PhylumChordata) found in the fresh and salt waters of the world. The term fish applied to avariety of vertebrates of several evolutionary lines. It describes a life-form rather than ataxonomic group. As members of the Phylum Chordata, fish share certain features withother vertebrates. These features are gill slits, at some point in the life cycle, anotochord, or skeletal supporting rod, a dorsal hollow nerve cord and a tail (Parenti,Weitzman, 2010). Fish do not represent a monophyleticgroup, and therefore the"evolution of fish" is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the fossil record arerepresented by a group of small, jawless, armored fish known as ostracoderms. Jawlessfish lineages are mostly extinct. An extant clade, the lampreysmay approximate ancientpre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermifossils. The diversity of jawedvertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear ifthe advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, or acombination of factors. Fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like seasquirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways. The first ancestors of fishmay have kept the larval form into adulthood(as some sea squirts do today), althoughperhaps the reverse is the case (Nelson, Joseph S., 2006).
The scientific study of fish, or fish biology is traditionally known by the ratherintimidating name Ichthyology. It is a very broad science that includes many specializedfields. The one thing that all fish biologists share in common is their fascination with theestimated 25,000 to 30,000 species of fishes found in the world oceans, lakes ponds,rivers and streams (Murphare, 1993).We the researchers, are assigned to study the Ichthyology of fishes within theGinggoog City Colleges campus. The fish that is found inside the campus is Koi or morespecifically the “Nishikigoi” (scientifically known as the Cyprus Carpio).Koi are an ornamental species of fish that descend from the carp (a species ofoily freshwater fish from the family Cyprimidae). In the 1600s, Chinese farmed carp inrice paddies, a practice that traveled to Japan, when these Japanese noticed odd colorvariations in some of the carp and bred them, creating Koi species. Koi used to only befound in red, white, black and blue combinations of all the colors in the rainbow(Wyrosdic, 2019).

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