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Unformatted text preview: American History 2020 Reconstruction 1865-1877 Putting the U.S back together after the civil war. o 11 States from the South 1865, 13 th Amendment, abolishes slavery in the U.S. o 4 Million slaves set free. Recon a chance for ex slaves to explore freedom. What would you do? Freedmens Bureau Created by Congress March 3, 1865 To assist Blacks in transition from slavery to freedom and to aid poor whites. Primitive welfare agency Headed Oliver Otis Howard. Contributions of Freedmans Bureau Provided food and clothing to blacks and whites. Established hospitals. Tried to establish new labor system in South between ex slaves and ex masters i.e. overseeing contracts. Tried to help ex slaves acquire land. Tried to ensure that Blacks got fair treatment in court. Most significant; established schools for blacks. After Civil war 3 major thing unresolved: 1. What would happen to the ex-slaves? 2. What was the status of the CSA? (Confederate states of America) 3. Who would deal with Southern States and their leaders? Leads to 3 types of Reconstruction: Presidential, Congressional and Radical. Presidential Reconstruction Who was president of the U.S in 1865? Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. Lincolns plan for reconstruction, 10% plan Proposed in 1863 If 10% of Southerners who voted (adult white males 21+) in Election of 1860 took Oath of Allegiance to U.S; If they abolished slavery, would be back in union and could set up state governments. Oath didnt apply to high-ranking confederate leaders. Many reps in Congress thought Lincoln being too generous. Wade-Davis Bill 1864 Proposed by reps in congress in response to 10% plan If 50% of Southerners took Oath to U.S. then a State convention could be called Convention had to: 1. Abolish Slavery 2. Outlaw/ repudiate Confederate debts 3. Disenfranchise high ranking Confederate leaders Then each State could draw up new constitutions and after accepted by majority at polls, they could enter union Republicans By 1864 Republicans in Congress divided between Radicals and Moderates. Radicals wanted to punish the south o Sumner and Stevens Wanted fair treatment and equality from Freedmen. Moderates, had majority in Congress, wanted southern states back in the union ASAP, but on congresss terms and not the presidents. Lincoln pocket vetoes Wade-Davis Bill (refuses to sign) Why? Too harsh April 14, 1865 Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth and succeeded by VP Andrew Johnson. Radical Republicans hoped Johnson would share their views. Andrew Johnson From Tennessee Picked as VP to balance the ticket A democrat, Southerner, slave owner Hated aristocrats Believed middle class white men should manage South and not wealthy planters....
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