Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Life and Chemistry: Large Molecules...

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Chapter 3 Life and Chemistry: Large Molecules Life and Chemistry: Large Molecules 0. Theories of the Origin of Life 1. Macromolecules: Giant Polymers 2. Condensation and Hydrolysis Reactions 3. Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids, Water 4. All Life from Life Theories of the Origin of Life 5. Living things are made of the same elements as the rest of the universe. 6. There are two theories for the origin of life during the Hadean: 0. Life from extraterrestrial sources 1. Chemical evolution Theories of the Origin of Life 7. Meteorite composition suggests some of molecules could have come from space. 2. Ringed hydrocarbons, purines, 8. There is no proof that living things have ever traveled to Earth. 3. Data do suggest that life is not found only on Earth. Was Life Once Here? Theories of the Origin of Life 9. Chemical evolution theory - conditions on primitive Earth led to formation of large molecules unique to life. 10. In the 1950s, Miller & Urey set up an experimental “primitive” atmosphere and used a spark to simulate lightning. 4. H 2 , NH 3 , CH 4 2 O vapor 11. In days, the system had many complex molecules. Theories of the Origin of Life 12. The Miller-Urey experiments have undergone several refinements. 5. Primitive atmosphere content ideas revised – led to more diverse molecules Macromolecules: Giant Polymers 13. Four major types of biological macromolecules: 6. Proteins 7. Carbohydrates 8. Lipids 9. Nucleic acids Macromolecules: Giant Polymers 14. These molecules are made the same way in all living things, and are present in all organisms in roughly the same proportions. 15. This biochemical unity allows organisms to get needed biochemicals by eating other organisms. Macromolecules: Giant Polymers 16. Macromolecules are giant polymers . 17. Polymers are formed by covalent linkages of smaller units called monomers . 18. Macromolecule functions are related to their shape and the chemical properties of their monomers.
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Macromolecules: Giant Polymers 19. Some roles of macromolecules include: 11. Structural support, protection and defense 12. Transport 13. Movement, growth, and development 14. Heredity Condensation and Hydrolysis 20. Macromolecules are made by dehydration synthesis reactions [condensation] where an OH from one monomer and an H from another monomer are linked to form water. 21. The reverse reaction, breaking down polymers, is a called hydrolysis. 22. Energy is required to make or break bonds. Emergent Properties 23. Macromolecule properties differ from those of the monomers and other smaller pieces used to build them. 24. We call these new traits “emergent properties.” 25. Emergent properties result from the interactions of the components at any level of biological organization Proteins: Polymers of Amino Acids 26. Proteins 27. Each protein has a characteristic amino acid sequence.
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course BIOL 1010 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '06 term at Virginia Tech.

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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Life and Chemistry: Large Molecules...

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