ANSSR S EC 08 12A Final report_v2.pdf - ENHANCING QUALITY RELEVANCE OF TVET FORCURRENT AND FUTURE INDUSTRY NEEDS ANSSR Enhancing the Quality and

ANSSR S EC 08 12A Final report_v2.pdf - ENHANCING QUALITY...

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Unformatted text preview: ENHANCING QUALITY & RELEVANCE OF TVET FORCURRENT AND FUTURE INDUSTRY NEEDS ANSSR: Enhancing the Quality and Relevance of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Current and Future Industry Needs-Phase 1 Economic Committee June 2014 ENHANCING QUALITY & RELEVANCE OF TVET FORCURRENT AND FUTURE INDUSTRY NEEDS Foreword The APEC New Strategy for Structural Reform (ANSSR), adopted by the APEC Leaders in 2010, calls on individual member economies to set structural reform priorities, and identify objectives, policies, and approaches for measuring progress over the 2011-2015 time frame. Structural reform should focus on policy reforms related to institutional frameworks, regulation and design of government policies that help minimize barriers to market-based incentives, competition and regional economic integration. The result of such reforms would boost an economy’s growth potential. To assist member economies in prioritizing structural reform issues, the ANSSR focuses on five broad areas. One of these areas is directed at labour market opportunities, particularly in ensuring that workers meet industry demands in terms of skills required and quality performance through Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) which directly prepares and trains an individual to perform in the working environment. Recognising the need for continuous enhancement, the Malaysian government, through the Department of Skills Development (DSD), Ministry of Human Resources (MOHR), proposed to conduct a study on identifying Best Practices to Enhance TVET for Industry Current and Future Needs. This is done by conducting research on the process involved in analysing requirements of an occupation. In Malaysia, this process encompasses Occupational Analysis and the development of the National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS). DSD is responsible for promoting and coordinating strategies and programmes in skills training and development. Through the SkillsMalaysia agenda announced under the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) by the Prime Minister on 11th January 2011, the government aims to achieve 3.3 million highly-skilled workers in the country’s workforce by 2020. Malaysia’s NOSS is the driving force in bridging between skills delivery and the nation’s workforce demands. It is hoped that by observing the Best Practices in benchmark economies, an enhanced development methodology will be to serve as reference in producing a responsive, flexible and dynamic tool in recognising industry skills requirements. This project has involved input from TVET stakeholders in Malaysia and participating economies. Many insightful experiences have been gained throughout the course of this study especially during benchmarking visits to counterparts related to TVET in Australia, Canada and Singapore. The solidarity and sharing of experiences in the development of Occupational Frameworks and Occupational Competency Standards has provided a strong foundation for the building of a sustainable community of practices in the APEC region. Finally, I would like to express my utmost appreciation and gratitude to all those who have contributed directly and indirectly to this study, especially the economies that had hosted the Malaysian delegation in the benchmarking visits, namely Australia, Canada and Singapore. Not forgetting the local TVET stakeholders in Malaysia who had participated and shared their views as well as insight on ways to enhance TVET for the betterment of the respective APEC member economies. Thank you. Datuk Dr. Pang Chau Leong Director General Department of Skills Development Ministry of Human Resources, Malaysia i ENHANCING QUALITY & RELEVANCE OF TVET FORCURRENT AND FUTURE INDUSTRY NEEDS Preface The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) New Strategy for Structural Reform (ANSSR) was endorsed by Leaders in November 2010, with a target year of 2015, where economies were required to pledge and identify the most suitable and significant structural reforms, consistent with the objective of achieving strong, inclusive and balanced growth. ANSSR invites each individual economy to identify structural priorities and objectives, policies and approaches for measuring progress through 2015, using qualitative and quantitative indicators as appropriate. Malaysia’s ANSSR priorities are (1) ease of doing business: trading across border; (2) enhance competitive, innovative and resilient SMEs; and (3) promoting labour market opportunities, training and education. In alignment with these initiatives, the project “Enhancing the Quality and Relevance of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Current and Future Industry Needs-Phase 1” was proposed by Malaysia, under the supervision of the Department of Skills Development (DSD), Ministry of Human Resources (MOHR) of Malaysia. The project aims at assisting Malaysia and 14 other economies to implement one of the priorities of its ANSSR Action Plan which is related to “Upgrading Skills and Capabilities of Existing Workforce to Address the Needs of Industries” Specifically, this APEC funded project had several objectives, namely (i) to undertake an analysis in order to create recommendations on improving Occupational Analysis (OA) of critical jobs to be more forward looking; (ii) to undertake an analysis in order to create recommendations on the process of developing Nationally Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) that meet industry requirements; and (iii) recommending improvement to the stakeholders in relations to the national Skill Development and Training (SDT) system to fulfill the current and future demands of industries with regards to OA and NOSS development. As the project overseer, we would like to acknowledge the participation and cooperation of the individuals involved in the project with tremendous contribution to its successful completion. On behalf DSD MOHR (Malaysia), we would like to express our sincere gratitude to Carrie Roche of Department of Industry, Innovation, Climate Change, Science, Research and Tertiary Education (Australia), Eileen Lee of Ministry of Trade & Industry (Singapore), Tim Hunsley of Department of Employment and Social Development (Canada), and Deddy Faisal of First Secretary High Commission of Malaysia Ottawa, who acted as focal points and coordinator during the field visit study activities. We would like to express our sincere gratitude and appreciation to the following,without whom this projectwould not be possible: Steering Committee Chairman: Datuk Dr. Pang Chau Leong, Director General DSD Steering Committee Co-chair: Nidzam Bin Kamarulzaman, Deputy Director General DSD Steering Committee Members: Hjh. Norizan Binti Mohd Shahbaki, Director DSD Hj. Omar Bin Jusoh, Director DSD Mohd Zabidin Bin Abd. Samad, Director ADTEC Hjh. Ruminah Binti Muhammad Zain, Deputy Director DSD Nor Azri Bin Zulfakar, Deputy Director EPU Mohd Sukri Bin Ismail, Deputy Director DSD Dr. Ir Azmi Bin Ahmad, KP (PPK) CIAST Peter Cheah Hee Keong, Principal Assistant Director MITI Sailanathan a/l Podian, President FeMAC Special thanks to all organizations and individuals who involved directly or indirectly for their cooperation in supplying the relevant information in turning this into success. We would also like to acknowledge the support and valuable contributions of the following individuals among DSD MOHR: Technical Committee Chairman: Hjh. Norizan Binti Mohd Shahbaki, Director of Planning, Research & Development Division ii ENHANCING QUALITY & RELEVANCE OF TVET FORCURRENT AND FUTURE INDUSTRY NEEDS Technical Committee Co-chair: Hjh. Ruminah Binti Muhammad Zain, Deputy Director of Planning, Research & Development Division Technical Committee Members: Norisniwati Binti Abdul Rahim, Planning, Research & Development Division Abdul Halim Bin Hasan, National Occupational Skills Standard Division Junita Binti Mohamed Ali, Planning, Research & Development Division Shahlisa Cheah Binti Shihabudin, Planning, Research & Development Division Susana Ling Hie King, Planning, Research & Development Division Aziyati Binti Yusoff, Malaysian Occupational Skills Standard Division Nozie Mazzuana Binti Md. Arof, Planning, Research & Development Division Safiza Binti Saleh, Planning, Research & Development Division Roziyati Binti Abdullah, Planning, Research & Development Division Hj. Zaharudin Bin Abdul Latif, National Occupational Skills Standard Division Khadijah Binti Mohd Noor, National Occupational Skills Standard Division Khadijah Binti Isaak, Malaysian Occupational Skills Standard Division Zahidah Binti Borhanuddin, Planning, Research & Development Division Last, but not least, we would like to express our deepest appreciation to Norishah Shamsir Khan (APEC MITI), Khairul Annuar Yunos (PEMUDAH Secretariat), Nur Suhada Ahad (SME Corporation Malaysia), for their initial involvement during ANSSR Project Training Workshop held in Bali, 3-6 July 2012 with tremendous helpful facilitator, Christine Ford (AusAID). We truly hope that this APEC project report will contribute significantly to the implementation and the recommendations made will also be a useful reference or a replicable model for other economies to improve their occupational analysis and National Occupation Skills Standard (NOSS). Shahlisa Cheah Binti Shihabudin APEC Project Overseer June 2014 Nurul Amin Bin Badrul APEC Project Overseer June 2014 iii ENHANCING QUALITY & RELEVANCE OF TVET FORCURRENT AND FUTURE INDUSTRYNEEDS Acknowledgements The authors of this report, Dr. Amiron Ismail and Evarina Amiron would like to thank all those involved directly and indirectly throughout the development of this project especially personnel from the APEC Secretariat, APEC Economic Committee members, the Department of Skills Development (Malaysia), the Department of Industry (Australia), Employment and Social Development Canada (Canada), Workforce Development Agency (Singapore), Ministry of International Trade and Industry (Malaysia), governing bodies, PRITEC Working Group members, PRITEC research team members and TVET stakeholders in Malaysia, Australia, Canada and Singapore. We would also like to express special thanks to our Project Overseer, Puan Shahlisa Cheah Shihabudin and our project secretariat, Norfadilah Ithnin for the tireless commitment and support given throughout the development of this project. It has been an interesting and enlightening experience to see the close cooperation and sharing of experiences between the economies involved for the betterment of all parties towards developing a more skilled and productive workforce. It is the hope of the authors that the findings of this study will provide insightful and useful information on the development of Occupational Frameworks and Occupational Competency Standards towards enhancing the quality and relevance of TVET for current and future industry needs. Dr. Amiron Ismail, Project Consultant PRITEC Evarina Amiron, Project Researcher PRITEC iv ENHANCING QUALITY & RELEVANCE OF TVET FORCURRENT AND FUTURE INDUSTRYNEEDS ABSTRACT This project is conducted under the monitoring of the APEC Secretariat for the Economic Committee and the Department of Skills Development, Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia. It is aimed at assisting Malaysia and other economies to implement one of the priorities of the APEC New Strategy on Structural Reform ANSSR Action Plan which is related to “Upgrading Skills and Capabilities of Existing Workforce to Address the Needs of Industries”. This priority is in-line with ANSSR, endorsed by Leaders in November 2010. In many economies, Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) has been gaining increased attention from policy makers and other stakeholders. TVET is widely known to be responsible in providing competent workers equipped with technical skills, high literacy in technology and also generic skills. It is also one of the most critical drivers for a nation to transform from a middle-income nation to high-income nation. One of the major issues to be addressed is in Enhancing the Quality and Relevance of TVET for Current and Future Industry Needs which is the main objective of the project. This issue is crucial and within the scope of the project, it is analysed at earlier stages of TVET implementation which is at the TVET curriculum development stage that is based on the analysis of occupations. The scope of the project is in analysing the development of Occupational Analysis (OA) and National Occupational Skills Standards (NOSS) to determine the suitable methodologies which will ensure the outcome of the OA and NOSS is relevant to industry needs. OA and NOSS are the terms used for Occupational Frameworks and Occupational Competency Standards used in Malaysia. When referring to OA and NOSS for other economies, the terms Occupational Framework and Occupational Competency Standards are applied. The project research was conducted via discussion groups, semi-structured surveys and benchmarking visits to three selected economies namely Australia, Singapore and Canada where the research approach undertaken was qualitative. A total of more than 119 respondents and 62 organisations were consulted throughout this project to observe and analyse the best practices implemented. The findings in this research are presented in the form of Best Practices for both Occupational Frameworks and Occupational Competency Standards development. The Best Practices for Occupational Framework development focus on industry involvement throughout the development either as subject matter experts or validation panel, industry input for statistical data, segmentation of industries, grouping of occupational areas, overall overview of all industries that can facilitate long term planning and analysis of pertaining information such as career paths, occupational descriptions including industry overview to facilitate the readers in understanding the overall potential of an occupation in a certain trade. The Best Practices for Occupational Competency Standards Development focus on analysing an occupational area to determine the relevant competencies required for personnel or a worker to be competent in a particular occupation that result in Competency Units/Duties, formulation of Core Competencies and Elective Competencies that must be clearly defined in terms of purpose and grouping according to qualifications/occupational areas, identification of the Performance Criteria, the enabling requirements of a particular job/task/work activity that include the underpinning knowledge, related skills, tools, equipment and materials, attitude, adherence to relevant legislation and assessment criteria that must be clearly stated in certain range and context. Following this is the proposed standard methodology on developing the Occupational Frameworks and Occupational Competency Standards that embed the best practices throughout the development process. The standard development methodology proposed in this report is aspired to enhance current development methodologies, the most important aspect is in getting the industry to be more actively involved at the onset of the development process. Another major enhancement is the element of continuous improvement acquired from the public using the internet as a major form of communication. To promote the use of the development methodologies, certain elements must be in place; nationwide consultation and enactment of acts to further strengthen the mechanisms of development, provision of funds to stakeholders involved in development and implementation of training, rebranding of TVET to show its advantages in increasing employability and worker mobility and finally, an integrated communications platform linking the governing bodies, development personnel, industry members, training providers and public with keen interest in the development of industry skills. v ENHANCING QUALITY & RELEVANCE OF TVET FORCURRENT AND FUTURE INDUSTRYNEEDS TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS 1. 2. PAGES Foreword Preface Acknowledgments Abstract Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables List of Abbreviations i ii iv vi vii x xi xii Introduction 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 Preamble Research Structure Project Objectives Project Scope Project Importance Project Outcomes Chapter Summary Literature Review 9 2.1 2.2 Preamble Overview of TVET In Malaysia 2.2.1 Background of TVET in Malaysia 2.2.2 Relevant Governing Bodies and Organisations 2.2.3 Acts Relevant to TVET in Malaysia 2.2.4 Malaysian Qualifications Framework (MQF) 2.2.5 Occupational Analysis (OA) Development 2.2.6 National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) Development 2.3 Overview of TVET In Singapore 2.3.1 Background of TVET in Singapore 2.3.2 Relevant Governing Bodies and Organisations 2.3.3 Acts Relevant to TVET in Singapore 2.3.4 Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications 2.3.5 National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) Equivalent in Singapore – WSQ Competency Standards 22 22 23 25 26 28 2.4 Overview of TVET In Australia 2.4.1 Background of TVET in Australia 2.4.2 Relevant Governing Bodies and Organisations 2.4.3 Acts and Instruments Relevant to TVET in Australia 2.4.4 Australian Qualifications Framework 2.4.5 National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) Equivalent in Australia – Training Packages 29 29 29 31 32 35 2.5 Overview of TVET In Canada 2.5.1 Background of TVET in Canada 2.5.2 Relevant Governing Bodies and Organisations 2.5.3 Acts Relevant to TVET in Canada 2.5.4 Ontario Qualifications Framework 2.5.5 National Occupational Standard (NOSS) Equivalent in Canada– National Occupational Analysis 37 37 37 39 39 42 9 9 11 12 14 16 19 vi ENHANCING QUALITY & RELEVANCE OF TVET FORCURRENT AND FUTURE INDUSTRYNEEDS 2.6 Chapter Summary 42 vii ENHANCING QUALITY & RELEVANCE OF TVET FORCURRENT AND FUTURE INDUSTRYNEEDS CONTENTS PAGES 3. Methodology Applied in Study 3.1 Preamble 3.2 Research Design 3.3 Research Instruments 3.4 Data Analysis 3.4.1 Analysis on Working Group Discussions 3.4.2 Analysis of Findings from Focus Discussion Group Workshop 3.4.3 Comparative Analysis Between Selected Benchmark Economies 3.4.4 Situational Analysis 3.5 Chapter Summary 43 44 44 44 49 49 49 50 51 52 4. Findings and Analysis 53 4.1 4.2 Preamble Current Development Process of OA & NOSS in Malaysia 4.2.1 Occupational Analysis (OA) & National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) Development 4.2.2 Application Of Occupational Analysis (OA) & National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) 4.2.3 Project Monitoring & Control of Occupational Analysis (OA) & National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) Development 4.2.4 Industry Acceptance of Skills Qualification 53 53 Occupational Frameworks & Occupational Competency Development in Australia, Canada and Singapore 60 4.3 4.3.1 Standards Singapore 4.3.1.1 Occupational Framework and Occupational Competency Standards Equivalent Development 4.3.1.2 Project Monitoring & Control 4.3.1.3 Industry Acceptance 4.3.1.4 Training and Assessment 4.4 53 57 58 58 60 60 66 66 66 4.3.2 Australia 4.3.2.1 Occupational Framework and Occupational Competency Standards Equivalent Development 4.3.2.2 Project Monitoring & Control 4.3.2.3 Industry Acceptance 4.3.2.4 Training and Assessment 67 4.3.3 Canada 4.3.3.1 Occupational Frameworks and Occupational Competency Standards Development 4.3.3.2 Project Monitoring and Control 4.3.3.3 Industry Acceptance 4.3.3.4 Training and Assessment 73 4.3.4 84 Summary of Benchmarking Findings Comparative Analysis on Occupational Frameworks and Occupational Competency Standards Development in Selected APEC Economies 4.4.1 Comparison between Generic Subject Areas 4.4.2 Comparison between Occupational Frameworks 4.4.3 Comparison between Occupational Competency Standards 68 70 73 73 75 81 81 82 87 87 91 96 viii ENHANCING QUALITY & RELEVANCE OF TVET FORCURRENT AND FUTURE INDUSTRYNEEDS 4.4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 5. Summary of Comparative Analysis 98 Best Practices in Developing Occupa...
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