promotionretentionofnurses.pdf

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Promoting retention of nurses: A meta-analytic examination of causes of nurse turnover Darin Nei Lori Anderson Snyder Brett J. Litwiller Background: Because the health care field is expected to be the fastest growing job field until 2020, an urgent need to focus on nurse retention exists. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between predictors of turnover (i.e., personal characteristics, role states, job characteristics, group/leader relations, organizational/environmental perceptions, attitudinal reactions) and turnover cognitions and intentions, as well as actual turnover among nurses, in an effort to determine the strongest predictors of voluntary turnover. Methodology: Meta-analysis was used to determine best estimates of the effect of predictors on turnover based on 106 primary studies of employed nurses. Meta-analyzed correlations were subjected to path analysis to establish the structural relationships among the study variables. Findings: Supportive and communicative leadership, network centrality, and organizational commitment are the strongest predictors of voluntary turnover based on meta-analytic correlations. Additional variables that relate to nurse turnover intentions include job strain, role tension, work Y family conflict, job control, job complexity, rewards/recognition, and team cohesion. Practice Implications: The findings suggest that some factors, such as salary, are relatively less important in prediction of turnover. Administrators concerned about nurse turnover may more effectively direct resources toward altering certain job characteristics and work conditions in the effort to reduce voluntary turnover among nurses. C oncerns about maintaining a qualified and adequate workforce of nurses are well deserved. Nursing is projected to be the occupational field with the largest job growth until 2020, with the size of the workforce expanding 26% (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013). In ad- dition to increased demand for nurses, several additional factors have contributed to create a large shortage of qual- ified nurses. One such factor is retention of newly licensed registered nurses (RNs). A 2007 study found that that 37% of RNs intended to search for new employment within the next year whereas 13% of RNs had already changed jobs after 1 year (Kovner et al., 2007). Although adequate re- search has shown that turnover has negative effects on several organization-level variables across the general work- force, such as decreased customer satisfaction (Koys, 2001), future revenue growth (Baron, Hannan, & Burton, 2001), productivity (Huselid, 1995), and profitability (Glebbeck & Bax, 2004), three factors specific to the nursing field justify more comprehensive examination of the antecedents of nurse turnover. First, there may be certain characteris- tics of nurses that are similar to and different from other Key words: leadership, network centrality, organizational commitment, retention Darin Nei, PhD, is Consultant, Hogan Assessment Systems, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
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