Managing_Training_&_Development.pdf - Managing Training Development Subject MANAGING TRAINING DEVELOPMENT Credits 4 SYLLABUS Conceptual Framework of

Managing_Training_&_Development.pdf - Managing Training...

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Unformatted text preview: ? Managing Training & Development Subject: MANAGING TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT Credits: 4 SYLLABUS Conceptual Framework of Training-I Introduction to Training Development and Education, Objectives of training, Areas of training, Drawbacks and problem of training, Significance of Training, Training Manual, Learning and Learning Styles, Learning process : A Few Good Learning Theories. Conceptual Framework of Training-II Adult Learning, Learning styles elements and profiles, Principles of Effective Training and Learning, Effective Training, Collection of Articles. Approaches to Training Approaches to Training, Training Procedure, Training Need, Assessment, Training for Performance, Training Room Design, Role and responsibilities of HRD and Training specialist. Designing Training Plan Objectives of Designing Training Plan, Competency Based HRM/Training, Competency Psychology Designing & Conducting Specific T & D Programmes, New Employee Training. Methods and Styles of Training I Introduction to Training Methods and Techniques, Sensitivity Training, On the Job Training, Basic Teaching and Presentation Skills. Methods and Styles of Training II Training Methods, Criteria for Method Selection, Relationship between principles of teaching and learning methods, Computer Based Training (CBT) MANAGEMENT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Evaluation of Training Introduction, concept and principles, Evaluation of Training, Evaluating Training and Results Methods of Evaluation & Training Assessment Program Evaluation, Planning the Program Evaluation, Levels of Evaluation Methods of Evaluation, Feedback and Assessment, Evaluating Training Staff, Assessing the ROI of Training, Tutorial. Management Training & Development Management Development, Employee Training & Coaching, Mentoring and Coaching, ROI of Management Training, Training Practices, Train the Trainer, Training For Diversity. Suggested Reading: 1. Management of Human Resources, Dr A. K Saini and Sanjay Kumar Pathak, Publisher: Gullybaba Publishing 2. Human Resource Management by K. Ashwa Thapa, Publisher: Himalaya Publishing House 3. Human Resource Management by V. S. P Rao, Publisher: Excel Publishing House 4. Human Resource management by L. M Prasad, Publisher: Sultan Chand Publishing House. 5. Training, Needs, Analysis and Evaluation by Frances and Roland Bee, Publisher: IPD London 6. Art of Training and Development in Management by Leslie Rae, Publisher: Crest Publication. MANAGEMENT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT (MBA) COURSE OVERVIEW Human Resource Development practices plays crucial role in success of any ogranisation and for any Manager. Specially for HR practitioner it is mandatory to understand and practice principles of Management of Training and Development. The aim of this subject is to develop students’ understanding of the concepts of Training and Development. In particular the subject is designed to develop the underpinning knowledge and skills required to Manage, organize and conduct Training & Development. This subject introduces the student to the concepts in the Training and Development. It familiarizes the students with the various methods and techniques of training and Development. The students on completion of the course shall develop the following skills and competencies: a. Concept of Training and Development. b. Practice Systematic Approach towards Training and Development. c. Knowledge of various methods and styles of training for their effectiveness d. Evaluation of methods and styles of training for their effectiveness i MANAGEMENT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT MANAGING TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT CONTENTS Lesson No. Lesson 1 iv Introduction to Training Development and Eduction Page No. 1 Lesson 2 Significance of Training 12 Lesson 3 Training Manual 17 Lesson 4 Learning and Learning Styles 26 Lesson 5 Learning process : A Few Good Learning Theories 40 Lesson 6 Adult Learning 47 Lesson 7 Principles of Effective Training and Learning 56 Lesson 8 Effective Training 67 Lesson 9 Collection of Articles 76 Lesson 10 Approahces to Training 82 Lesson 11 Training Need Assessment 86 Lesson 12 Training for Performance 95 Lesson 13 Training Room Design 104 Lesson 14 Designing Training Plan 119 Lesson 15 Competency Based Hrm/Training 130 Lesson 16 Competency Psychology 143 Lesspn 17 Designing & Conducting Specific T & D Programmes 167 Lesson 18 New Employee Training 180 Lesson 19 Introduction to Training Methods and Techniques 19 Lesson 20 On the Job Training 197 Lesson 21 Basic Teaching and Presentation Skills 207 Lesson 22 7 Topic Training Methods 214 Lesson 23 Criteria for Method Selection 223 Lesson 24 Computer Based Training (Cbt) 227 Lesson 25 Evaluation of Training 239 Lesson 26 & 27 Evaluating Training and Results - I 246 Lesson 28 Evaluating Training and Results - II 267 MANAGING TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT CONTENTS Lesson No. 8 9 Topic Page No. Lesson 29 Methods of Evaluation 275 Lesson 30 Feedback and Assessment 282 Lesson 31 Evaluating Training Staff 299 Lesson 32 Assessing the ROI of Training 303 Lesson 33 Tutorial 315 Lesson 34 Management Development 316 Lesson 35 Employee Training and Coaching 330 Lesson 36 Mentoring and Coaching 340 Lesson 37 ROI of Management Training 346 Lesson 38 Training Practices 351 Lesson 39 Training Practices 358 Lesson 40 Train the Trainer 378 Lesson 41 Training for Diversity 395 v UNIT I CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK LESSON 1 UNIT 1 OF TRAINING INTRODUCTION TO TRAINING DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCTION Dear Friends, Management of Training and Development is an elective subject for HR specialist. This is your first lesson to the subject. After going through this lesson you will be able to : Training is a systematic process of changing the behaviour, knowledge and attitude to bridge gap between employee characteristics and organsiation expectations. 1. Explain Training and Development 2. Differentiate between Training Development and Education Thus, training bridges the differences between job requirements and employee’s present specifications 3. Explain significance of Training and Development Department in any organization. Objectives of Training Introduction Organisation and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for their survival and attainment of mutual goals. So every modem management has to develop the organisation through human resource development. Employee training is the important sub-system of human resource development. Employee training is a specialised function and is one of the fundamental operative functions for human resources management. Human Resources are the most important resources of any organization. Trained Employee is a price less stone. Meaning After an employee is selected, placed and introduced he or she must be provided with training facilities. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Training is a short-term educational process and utilising a systematic and organised procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. Dale S. Beach define the training as “... the organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and/or skill for a definite purpose. In other words training improves, changes, moulds the employee’s knowledge, skill, -behaviour, aptitude, and attitude towards the requirements of the job and organisation. Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organisation, to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by a particular job and. organisation. Training is the art of increasing knowledge & skills of an employee for doing a particular job. (By Flippo) Training is the intentional act of providing means for learning to take place. (By Planty) Training tries to improve skills or add to the existing level of knowledge so that the employees is better equipped to do his present job or to prepare him for a higher position with increased responsibility and are also able to cope with the pressures of a changing environment. Generally line managers ask the personnel manager to formulate the training policies. The personnel Manager formulates the following training objectives in keeping with the Company’s goals and objectives: a. To prepare the employee both new and old to meet the present as well as the changing requirements of the job and the organisation. b. To prevent obsolescence. c. To impart the new entrants the basic knowledge and skill they need for an intelligent performance of definite job. d. To prepare employees for higher level tasks. e. To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing the skills they will need in their particular fields. f. To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them to occupy more responsible positions. g. To broaden the minds of senior managers by providing them with opportunities for an interchange of experiences within and outside with a view to correcting the narrowness of outlook that may arise from .over specialisation. h. To develop the potentialities of people for the next level job. i. To ensure smooth and efficient working of a department. j. To ensure economical output of required quality. k. To promote individual and collective morale, a sense of responsibility, co-operative attitudes and good relationships. Areas of Training Organisation provide training to their employees in the following areas: • Company policies and procedures; • Specific skills; • Human relations; • Problem solving; • Managerial and supervisory skills; and • Apprentice training. 1. Company Policies and Procedures: This area of training is to be provided with a view to acquainting the new employee with the Company Rules, Practices, Procedures, Tradition, 1 Management, Organisation Structure, Environment Product! Services offered by the company etc. providing technical Knowledge in the areas like trades, crafts etc. This acquaintance enables the new employee to adjust himself with the changing situations. Information regarding company rules and policies creates favourable attitudes of confidence in the minds of new employee about the company and its products/services, as well as it develops in him a sense of respect for the existing employees of the company and the like. The company also provides first hand information to the employee about the skills needed by the company, its development programmes, quality of products/services and the like. This enables the new employees . to know his share of contribution to the organisation’s growth and development. . The importance of human resource management to a large extent depends on human resource development. Training is the most important technique of human resource development. As stated earlier, no organisation can get a candidate who exactly matches with the job and the organisational requirements. Hence, training is important to develop the employee and make him suitable to the job. 2. Training in Specific Skills: This area of training is to enable the employee more effective on the job. The trainer trains the employee regarding. various skills necessary to do the actual job. For example, the clerk in the bank should be trained in the skills of making entries correctly in the edge, skills and arithmetical calculations, quick comparison of figures, entries and the like. Similarly, the technical officers are to be trained in the skills of project appraisal, supervision, follow-up and the like 3. H uman Relations Training: Human relations training assumes greater significance in organisations as employees have to maintain human relations not only with other employees but also.with their customers. Employees are to be trained in the areas of self-learning, interpersonal competence, group dynamics, perception, leadership styles, motivation, grievance redressal, disciplinary procedure, and the like. This training enables the employees for better team work, which leads to improved efficiency and productivity of the organisation. 4. Problem Solving Training : Most of the organisational problems are common to the employees dealing the same activity at different levels of the organisation. Further some of the problems of different managers may have the same root cause. Hence, management may call together all managerial personnel to discuss common problems so as to arrive at effective solutions across the table. This not only helps in solving the problems but also serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas and information that could be utilised. The trainer has to organise such meetings, train and encourage the trainees to participate actively in such meetings. Job and organisational requirements are not static, they are changed from time to time in view of technological advancement and change in the awareness of the Total Quality and Productivity Management (TQPM). The objectives of the TQPM can be achieved only through training as training develops human skills and efficiency. Trained employees would be a valuable asset to an organisation. Organisational efficiency, productivity, progress and development to a greater extent depend on training. Organisational objectives like viability, stability and growth can also be achieved through training. Training is important as it constitutes significant part of management control. Let us go through some benefits of training as below: Drawbacks of the Training The training could be a failure due to the following factors: • Unrealistic goals • Input overloads • Alienation of participants • Linkage failures One of the methods for helping the trainees in the posts training period, i.e. while they are on the job is to encourage trainees to refer back their problems, which however, could be done only in consultation with the authorities of the implementing- agency organisation. Problems of Training The training exercises/effort may suffer due to the absence of: 1. fully qualified, experienced and oriented trainers 2. facilities for trainer’s training 3. poor budgetary allocations for training 4. flexibility 5. action-research on training 6. field exposure and staff development 5. Manag erial and Supervisory Training : Even the nonmanagers sometimes perform managerial and supervisory functions like planning, decision-making, organising, maintaining inter-personal relations, directing and controlling. Hence, management has to train the employee in managerial and supervisory skills also. 7. adequate incentives to the trainers 6. Apprentice Training: The Apprentice Act, 1961 requires industrial units of specified industries to provide training in basic skills and knowledge in specified trades to educated unemployees /apprentices with a view to improving their employment opportunities or to enable them to start their own industry. This type of training generally ranges between one year to four years. This training is generally used for Training Risks A training programme may suffer from the following risks: 2 8. general apathy towards training 9. proper physical infrastructure. 10. proper arrangements for evaluation of the training programme. Design risk. Among the several reasons leading to inappropriate design are the following: • Training to deal with some symptoms and causes; • Training content and targets influenced by prejudice; • Internal and external trainers preferences; Training and Development • Limited search in the choice of materials and methodology. Employee training is distinct from management development or executive development. While the former refers to training given to employees in the areas of operations, technical and allied areas, the latter refers to developing an employee in the areas of principles and techniques of management, administration, organisation and allied areas. Following are the differences between training and development: Conduct rise: In the actual conduct of the training, even with a good design, the following may be some of the possible risks: • cancellation of some or more of the planned training • events; • failure to get nominations; • non-availability of faculty members of theirsubstitutes; Difference Between Training & DevelopmENT • absence of inability of the Course director in Training • failure of the nominees attending the course; integrating the inputs by different speakers towards the achievement of the goals; and • administrative lapses. Learning risks: The level of learning could be at risk from the following factors: • lack of interest in learning; • no perception of either awards for learning or • punishment for not learning; • negative attitudes arising from personal and work role experience. • complacency and resistance to self-change; • Sense of helplessness about self and others in the organisation in utilising training inputs. Transfer risks: The stage of transfer may be found to suffer form the following difficulties: • lack of interest of the individual trainees; • lack of support form his superiors; • It is a short term process • It utilises systematic and organised Procedure • Managerial personnel acquire skill of .training subordinates • Non-managerial personnel acquire technical skill & knowledge for a definite purpose. • It is primarily related with the job technical skill learning Development • It is a long term process • It utilises systematic & organised proce-dures • Managerial personnel get conceptual & theoretical knowledge & skill or manag-ing. It is rarely used. • Non managerial personnel acquire tech-nical skill and knowledge for a long term purpose • It is mainly useful for long term manage-ment development process. Relationship Between Training Development and Education • partial or ‘no implementation by group of joint commitments to action. • turnover of the trainee: • wrong posting of the’ trainee; • lack of coordinated approach in strategy, organisation and systems; and • other environmental crises. A view-point is sometimes past forward that often the trainers have great difficulty in determining the kind of training needed for and what they expect it to accomplish. At the same time, it is extremely difficult to evaluate the results of such training. The evaluation in respect of training as related, to trainers has been ignored more; than are other area in training. Methods of training have not been always properly evaluated. The fact that this evaluation like any other evaluation is a complex effort should not be a deterrent for making all reasonable efforts in evaluating whether or not such training is worth the corresponding effort of the trainer. Evaluation of a training programme/course is very important not only form the point of improving training but also to help the participant trainees and trainers to function more effectively. Evaluation can be involving the total programme or it can be partial aiming at appraisal of some salient aspects. Training Development Education Training and Education: Purpose of training is to supplement education. Training goes hand in hand with education. Learning is modification behaviour through training. In all training there is some education and in all education there is some training . These two processes cannot be separated from development. 3 Training is concerned with increasing the technical skills and knowledge and operative skills in doing a particular job. Hence, mostly employers train their employees for a particular job. But the scope of education is broader. It includes acquiring not only technical skills and knowledge, but also behavioural skills and knowledge, general knowledge, social knowledge and the like. Thus, the purpose of education is to develop individuals. It is concerned with the changing environmental, political and social developments. Education is not only through formal instruction in the educational institutes, but also through training, ob...
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