Unformatted text preview: ? Managing Training & Development Subject: MANAGING TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT Credits: 4 SYLLABUS
Conceptual Framework of Training-I
Introduction to Training Development and Education, Objectives of training, Areas of training, Drawbacks and
problem of training, Significance of Training, Training Manual, Learning and Learning Styles, Learning
process : A Few Good Learning Theories.
Conceptual Framework of Training-II
Adult Learning, Learning styles elements and profiles, Principles of Effective Training and Learning, Effective
Training, Collection of Articles.
Approaches to Training
Approaches to Training, Training Procedure, Training Need, Assessment, Training for Performance, Training
Room Design, Role and responsibilities of HRD and Training specialist.
Designing Training Plan
Objectives of Designing Training Plan, Competency Based HRM/Training, Competency Psychology Designing
& Conducting Specific T & D Programmes, New Employee Training.
Methods and Styles of Training I
Introduction to Training Methods and Techniques, Sensitivity Training, On the Job Training, Basic Teaching
and Presentation Skills.
Methods and Styles of Training II
Training Methods, Criteria for Method Selection, Relationship between principles of teaching and learning
methods, Computer Based Training (CBT)
MANAGEMENT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Evaluation of Training
Introduction, concept and principles, Evaluation of Training, Evaluating Training and Results
Methods of Evaluation & Training Assessment
Program Evaluation, Planning the Program Evaluation, Levels of Evaluation Methods of Evaluation, Feedback
and Assessment, Evaluating Training Staff, Assessing the ROI of Training, Tutorial.
Management Training & Development
Management Development, Employee Training & Coaching, Mentoring and Coaching, ROI of Management
Training, Training Practices, Train the Trainer, Training For Diversity.
1. Management of Human Resources, Dr A. K Saini and Sanjay Kumar Pathak,
Publisher: Gullybaba Publishing
2. Human Resource Management by K. Ashwa Thapa, Publisher: Himalaya
3. Human Resource Management by V. S. P Rao, Publisher: Excel Publishing House
4. Human Resource management by L. M Prasad, Publisher: Sultan Chand
Publishing House. 5. Training, Needs, Analysis and Evaluation by Frances and Roland Bee, Publisher:
6. Art of Training and Development in Management by Leslie Rae, Publisher: Crest
Publication. MANAGEMENT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT (MBA) COURSE OVERVIEW Human Resource Development practices plays crucial role in
success of any ogranisation and for any Manager. Specially for
HR practitioner it is mandatory to understand and practice
principles of Management of Training and Development.
The aim of this subject is to develop students’ understanding
of the concepts of Training and Development. In particular the
subject is designed to develop the underpinning knowledge and
skills required to Manage, organize and conduct Training &
Development. This subject introduces the student to the
concepts in the Training and Development. It familiarizes the
students with the various methods and techniques of training
and Development. The students on completion of the course shall develop the
following skills and competencies:
a. Concept of Training and Development.
b. Practice Systematic Approach towards Training and
c. Knowledge of various methods and styles of training for
d. Evaluation of methods and styles of training for their
effectiveness i MANAGEMENT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT MANAGING TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT CONTENTS
Lesson No. Lesson 1 iv Introduction to Training Development and Eduction Page No. 1 Lesson 2 Significance of Training 12 Lesson 3 Training Manual 17 Lesson 4 Learning and Learning Styles 26 Lesson 5 Learning process : A Few Good Learning Theories 40 Lesson 6 Adult Learning 47 Lesson 7 Principles of Effective Training and Learning 56 Lesson 8 Effective Training 67 Lesson 9 Collection of Articles 76 Lesson 10 Approahces to Training 82 Lesson 11 Training Need Assessment 86 Lesson 12 Training for Performance 95 Lesson 13 Training Room Design 104 Lesson 14 Designing Training Plan 119 Lesson 15 Competency Based Hrm/Training 130 Lesson 16 Competency Psychology 143 Lesspn 17 Designing & Conducting Specific T & D Programmes 167 Lesson 18 New Employee Training 180 Lesson 19 Introduction to Training Methods and Techniques 19 Lesson 20 On the Job Training 197 Lesson 21 Basic Teaching and Presentation Skills 207 Lesson 22 7 Topic Training Methods 214 Lesson 23 Criteria for Method Selection 223 Lesson 24 Computer Based Training (Cbt) 227 Lesson 25 Evaluation of Training 239 Lesson 26 & 27 Evaluating Training and Results - I 246 Lesson 28 Evaluating Training and Results - II 267 MANAGING TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT CONTENTS
8 9 Topic Page No. Lesson 29 Methods of Evaluation 275 Lesson 30 Feedback and Assessment 282 Lesson 31 Evaluating Training Staff 299 Lesson 32 Assessing the ROI of Training 303 Lesson 33 Tutorial 315 Lesson 34 Management Development 316 Lesson 35 Employee Training and Coaching 330 Lesson 36 Mentoring and Coaching 340 Lesson 37 ROI of Management Training 346 Lesson 38 Training Practices 351 Lesson 39 Training Practices 358 Lesson 40 Train the Trainer 378 Lesson 41 Training for Diversity 395 v UNIT I
INTRODUCTION TO TRAINING
DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCTION
Management of Training and Development is an elective
subject for HR specialist. This is your first lesson to the subject.
After going through this lesson you will be able to : Training is a systematic process of changing the behaviour,
knowledge and attitude to bridge gap between employee
characteristics and organsiation expectations. 1. Explain Training and Development
2. Differentiate between Training Development and Education Thus, training bridges the differences between job requirements
and employee’s present specifications 3. Explain significance of Training and Development
Department in any organization. Objectives of Training Introduction
Organisation and individual should develop and progress
simultaneously for their survival and attainment of mutual
goals. So every modem management has to develop the
organisation through human resource development. Employee
training is the important sub-system of human resource
development. Employee training is a specialised function and is
one of the fundamental operative functions for human
Human Resources are the most important resources of any
organization. Trained Employee is a price less stone.
After an employee is selected, placed and introduced he or she
must be provided with training facilities. Training is the act of
increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a
particular job. Training is a short-term educational process and
utilising a systematic and organised procedure by which
employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite
purpose. Dale S. Beach define the training as “... the organised
procedure by which people learn knowledge and/or skill for a
In other words training improves, changes, moulds the
employee’s knowledge, skill, -behaviour, aptitude, and attitude
towards the requirements of the job and organisation. Training
refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the
primary purpose of helping members of an organisation, to
acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes
needed by a particular job and. organisation.
Training is the art of increasing knowledge & skills of an
employee for doing a particular job.
Training is the intentional act of providing means for learning
to take place.
Training tries to improve skills or add to the existing level of
knowledge so that the employees is better equipped to do his
present job or to prepare him for a higher position with
increased responsibility and are also able to cope with the
pressures of a changing environment. Generally line managers ask the personnel manager to formulate
the training policies. The personnel Manager formulates the
following training objectives in keeping with the Company’s
goals and objectives:
a. To prepare the employee both new and old to meet the
present as well as the changing requirements of the job and
b. To prevent obsolescence.
c. To impart the new entrants the basic knowledge and skill
they need for an intelligent performance of definite job.
d. To prepare employees for higher level tasks.
e. To assist employees to function more effectively in their
present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts,
information and techniques and developing the skills they
will need in their particular fields.
f. To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare
them to occupy more responsible positions.
g. To broaden the minds of senior managers by providing
them with opportunities for an interchange of experiences
within and outside with a view to correcting the narrowness
of outlook that may arise from .over specialisation.
h. To develop the potentialities of people for the next level job.
i. To ensure smooth and efficient working of a department.
j. To ensure economical output of required quality.
k. To promote individual and collective morale, a sense of
responsibility, co-operative attitudes and good relationships.
Areas of Training
Organisation provide training to their employees in the
• Company policies and procedures;
• Specific skills; • Human relations;
• Problem solving;
• Managerial and supervisory skills; and
• Apprentice training. 1. Company Policies and Procedures: This area of training is
to be provided with a view to acquainting the new employee
with the Company Rules, Practices, Procedures, Tradition, 1 Management, Organisation Structure, Environment Product!
Services offered by the company etc. providing technical Knowledge in the areas like trades, crafts
etc. This acquaintance enables the new employee to adjust
himself with the changing situations. Information regarding
company rules and policies creates favourable attitudes of
confidence in the minds of new employee about the
company and its products/services, as well as it develops in
him a sense of respect for the existing employees of the
company and the like. The company also provides first hand
information to the employee about the skills needed by the
company, its development programmes, quality of
products/services and the like. This enables the new
employees . to know his share of contribution to the
organisation’s growth and development. . The importance of human resource management to a large
extent depends on human resource development. Training is
the most important technique of human resource development. As stated earlier, no organisation can get a candidate who
exactly matches with the job and the organisational requirements. Hence, training is important to develop the employee
and make him suitable to the job. 2. Training in Specific Skills: This area of training is to
enable the employee more effective on the job. The trainer
trains the employee regarding. various skills necessary to do
the actual job. For example, the clerk in the bank should be
trained in the skills of making entries correctly in the edge,
skills and arithmetical calculations, quick comparison of
figures, entries and the like. Similarly, the technical officers are
to be trained in the skills of project appraisal, supervision,
follow-up and the like
3. H uman Relations Training: Human relations training
assumes greater significance in organisations as employees
have to maintain human relations not only with other
employees but also.with their customers. Employees are to
be trained in the areas of self-learning, interpersonal
competence, group dynamics, perception, leadership styles,
motivation, grievance redressal, disciplinary procedure, and
the like. This training enables the employees for better team
work, which leads to improved efficiency and productivity of
4. Problem Solving Training : Most of the organisational
problems are common to the employees dealing the same
activity at different levels of the organisation. Further some
of the problems of different managers may have the same
root cause. Hence, management may call together all
managerial personnel to discuss common problems so as to
arrive at effective solutions across the table. This not only
helps in solving the problems but also serves as a forum for
the exchange of ideas and information that could be utilised.
The trainer has to organise such meetings, train and
encourage the trainees to participate actively in such meetings. Job and organisational requirements are not static, they are
changed from time to time in view of technological advancement and change in the awareness of the Total Quality and
Productivity Management (TQPM). The objectives of the
TQPM can be achieved only through training as training
develops human skills and efficiency. Trained employees would
be a valuable asset to an organisation. Organisational efficiency,
productivity, progress and development to a greater extent
depend on training. Organisational objectives like viability,
stability and growth can also be achieved through training.
Training is important as it constitutes significant part of
Let us go through some benefits of training as below:
Drawbacks of the Training
The training could be a failure due to the following factors:
• Unrealistic goals
• Input overloads
• Alienation of participants
• Linkage failures One of the methods for helping the trainees in the posts
training period, i.e. while they are on the job is to encourage
trainees to refer back their problems, which however, could be
done only in consultation with the authorities of the implementing- agency organisation.
Problems of Training
The training exercises/effort may suffer due to the absence of:
1. fully qualified, experienced and oriented trainers
2. facilities for trainer’s training
3. poor budgetary allocations for training
5. action-research on training
6. field exposure and staff development 5. Manag erial and Supervisory Training : Even the nonmanagers sometimes perform managerial and supervisory
functions like planning, decision-making, organising,
maintaining inter-personal relations, directing and
controlling. Hence, management has to train the employee in
managerial and supervisory skills also. 7. adequate incentives to the trainers 6. Apprentice Training: The Apprentice Act, 1961 requires
industrial units of specified industries to provide training in
basic skills and knowledge in specified trades to educated
unemployees /apprentices with a view to improving their
employment opportunities or to enable them to start their
own industry. This type of training generally ranges between
one year to four years. This training is generally used for Training Risks
A training programme may suffer from the following risks: 2 8. general apathy towards training
9. proper physical infrastructure.
10. proper arrangements for evaluation of the training
programme. Design risk. Among the several reasons leading to inappropriate design are the following:
• Training to deal with some symptoms and causes;
• Training content and targets influenced by prejudice; • Internal and external trainers preferences; Training and Development • Limited search in the choice of materials and methodology. Employee training is distinct from management development
or executive development. While the former refers to training
given to employees in the areas of operations, technical and
allied areas, the latter refers to developing an employee in the
areas of principles and techniques of management, administration, organisation and allied areas. Following are the differences
between training and development: Conduct rise: In the actual conduct of the training, even with a
good design, the following may be some of the possible risks:
• cancellation of some or more of the planned training
• failure to get nominations;
• non-availability of faculty members of theirsubstitutes; Difference Between Training &
DevelopmENT • absence of inability of the Course director in Training • failure of the nominees attending the course; integrating the inputs by different speakers towards the
achievement of the goals; and
• administrative lapses. Learning risks: The level of learning could be at risk from the
• lack of interest in learning;
• no perception of either awards for learning or
• punishment for not learning;
• negative attitudes arising from personal and work role experience.
• complacency and resistance to self-change;
• Sense of helplessness about self and others in the
organisation in utilising training inputs. Transfer risks: The stage of transfer may be found to suffer
form the following difficulties:
• lack of interest of the individual trainees;
• lack of support form his superiors; • It is a short term process
• It utilises systematic and organised Procedure • Managerial personnel acquire skill of .training subordinates
• Non-managerial personnel acquire technical skill & knowledge for a definite purpose.
• It is primarily related with the job technical skill learning Development
• It is a long term process
• It utilises systematic & organised proce-dures
• Managerial personnel get conceptual & theoretical knowledge & skill or manag-ing. It is rarely used.
• Non managerial personnel acquire tech-nical skill and knowledge for a long term purpose
• It is mainly useful for long term manage-ment development process. Relationship Between Training
Development and Education • partial or ‘no implementation by group of joint commitments to action.
• turnover of the trainee:
• wrong posting of the’ trainee;
• lack of coordinated approach in strategy, organisation and systems; and
• other environmental crises. A view-point is sometimes past forward that often the trainers
have great difficulty in determining the kind of training needed
for and what they expect it to accomplish. At the same time, it is
extremely difficult to evaluate the results of such training.
The evaluation in respect of training as related, to trainers has
been ignored more; than are other area in training. Methods of
training have not been always properly evaluated. The fact that
this evaluation like any other evaluation is a complex effort
should not be a deterrent for making all reasonable efforts in
evaluating whether or not such training is worth the corresponding effort of the trainer. Evaluation of a training
programme/course is very important not only form the point
of improving training but also to help the participant trainees
and trainers to function more effectively. Evaluation can be
involving the total programme or it can be partial aiming at
appraisal of some salient aspects. Training Development Education Training and Education:
Purpose of training is to supplement education.
Training goes hand in hand with education.
Learning is modification behaviour through training.
In all training there is some education and in all education there
is some training . These two processes cannot be separated
from development. 3 Training is concerned with increasing the technical skills and
knowledge and operative skills in doing a particular job. Hence,
mostly employers train their employees for a particular job. But
the scope of education is broader. It includes acquiring not only
technical skills and knowledge, but also behavioural skills and
knowledge, general knowledge, social knowledge and the like.
Thus, the purpose of education is to develop individuals. It is
concerned with the changing environmental, political and social
developments. Education is not only through formal instruction in the educational institutes, but also through training,
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