Chapter 27 - BSC 1010 Dr. Presley Chapter 27 Bacteria and...

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BSC 1010 Dr. Presley Chapter 27 Bacteria and Archaea: PROKARYOTIC DOMAINS WHY THREE DOMAINS? See Figure 27.2 on page 525 -Compare characteristics in the Table 27.1 on page 526 - All : - conduct glycolysis - have semiconservative replication of DNA - DNA serves as code for protein synthesis - have basically the same genetic codes used in transcription and translation - have plasma membranes - have ribosomes (70S for prokaryotic, 80S for eukaryotic) - Eukarya also have: nuclei membrane bound organelles cytoskeleton chlorophyll-based photosynthesis no operons but 3 types of RNA polymerase ribosomes sensitive to diphtheria toxin - Bacteria: peptidoglycans in cell wall plasmids chlorophyll-based photosynthesis operon, one type of RNA polymerase ribosomes sensitive to chloramphenicol and streptomycin can fix nitrogen -Archeae:- lack peptidoglycans in cell wall - plasmids - operon, one type of RNA polymerase (similar to eukaryotic polymerases) - ribosomes sensitive to diphtheria toxin - can fix nitrogen REVIEW OF TAXONOMY Text pages 503 – 504 Taxonomy = the identification and classification of organisms Aristotle – used 10 word descriptions as names Linnaeus – developed binomial system for naming a species species = group of similar organisms which interbreed producing viable offspring Hierarchical system of taxonomy -- Study Fig. 25.6 on page 502-503 Kingdom Phylum or Division Class Order Family Genus Species See page 525 for new taxonomic schemes Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya See proposed groups on p. 550 Compare this system to the Whittaker’s 5 kingdom system that you probably studied in high school 1. Monera (Prokaryotae) - prokaryotic cell, unicellular absorb or photosynthesize, motile or nonmotile, asexual Examples: bacteria, cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) **now replaced by the Domains: Bacteria and Archaea ***the following 4 kingdoms belong to the Domain Eukarya 2. Protista (Protoctista) - eukaryotic cells, unicellular, colonial, or multicellular lack tissue differentiation, absorb, ingest or photosynthesize sexual or asexual Examples: algae, protozoa, diatoms, slime molds *great complexity of taxonomic proposals – We will follow the same taxonomy as used in the lab. See a copy of that handout at the end of Ch 27 notes. 3. Fungi - non-photosynthetic eukaryotes with plant-like cell walls (chitin) absorb, nonmotile, sexual Examples: mushrooms, yeast, molds 4. Plantae - photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes, nonmotile, sexual Examples: moss, fern, cone-bearing trees, flowering plants 5. Animalia - multicellular eukaryotes, lack rigid cell wall, absorb, motile, sexual Examples: sponge, coral, insects, frogs, birds, humans GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PROKARYOTES - Review chapter notes on prokaryotic cells in Chapter 4 - they live everywhere ( ubiquitous ) - high temp., salinity, pH, oxygen availability Ch. 27 1 of 9
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BSC 1010 Dr. Presley - more bacteria in a human’s intestine than total number of a human’s own body cells - ancestral form for all three domains was prokaryotic–fossils from
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course BSC 1010 taught by Professor Presley during the Spring '06 term at Virginia Tech.

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Chapter 27 - BSC 1010 Dr. Presley Chapter 27 Bacteria and...

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