exam 2 review 2007

exam 2 review 2007 - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12....

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1. Organelles (don’t forget their structures and functions!) 2. differences between prokaryote and eukaryote cells o Prokaryote Domains: bacteria and archaea Do not possess a nuclear membrane, DNA in nucleoid No membrane bound organelles Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes o Eukaryote Domains: Eukarya, Kingdom: protista, fungi, plantae, animalia Nuclear envelope Membrane bound organelles in cytosol Compartmentalization needed 3. differences between plant and animal cells 4. named parts of chloroplasts and mitochondria 5. ribosomes 6. biological membranes 7. extracellular matrix 8. cytoskeleton fibers, structures, and functions 9. cell walls 10. where DNA is located in cells, including extra-nuclear locations 11. evolutionary origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts 12. types of transport o Passive Transport No ATP required Substance moves DOWN its concentration gradient – (1) diffusion (2) osmosis (3) facilitated diffusion (4) filtration o Active transport Requires ATP Transport of large substance or AGAINST (UP) its concentration gradient (1) active transport (2) endocytosis (a) phagocytosis (b) pinocytosis (3) exocytosis 13. hypotonic and their effects on cells o solution containing a lower concentration of solutes and more water than inside the cell o result: cells placed in a hypo solution will swell as water moves into the solution o turgor pressure: produces turgid plant cells 14. isotonic, and their effects on cells o solution containing same concentration of solutes as inside the cell o result: no movement of water between cell and solution o plant cells become flaccid (wilting) 15. hypertonic and their effects on cells o a solution containing a greater concentration of solutes and less water than inside the cell o result: cells placed in a hyper solution will shrink as water moves out o plasmolysis: plant cell shrinking away from cell wall 16. role of cholesterol 17. cell-to-cell junctions o plasmodesmata channels perforating plant cell walls contain cytoplasmic strands connecting adjacent cells lined by cell membrane allows passage of water and small solutes o Tight junctions Intercellular connections that hold certain animal cells tightly together blocking transport between cells Membrane proteins of adjacent cells are fused
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No space between membranes Frequently found in epithelial tissues such as in the intestines o Desmosomes “spot welds” or “rivets” between animal cells intercellular glycoprotein filaments penetrate and attach both cell’s membranes dense disk inside cell membrane reinforced by intermediate filaments (keratin) o Gap junctions Intercellular connections between animal cells Pores allow materials to flow between animal cells Common in embryos, cardiac muscle
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course BIOL 1005 taught by Professor Mvlipscomb during the Spring '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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exam 2 review 2007 - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12....

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