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Unformatted text preview: vSphere Virtual Machine Administration ESXi 6.0 vCenter Server 6.0 This document supports the version of each product listed and supports all subsequent versions until the document is replaced by a new edition. To check for more recent editions of this document, see . EN-001472-02 vSphere Virtual Machine Administration You can find the most up-to-date technical documentation on the VMware Web site at: The VMware Web site also provides the latest product updates. If you have comments about this documentation, submit your feedback to: [email protected] Copyright © 2009–2015 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright and trademark information. VMware, Inc. 3401 Hillview Ave. Palo Alto, CA 94304 2 VMware, Inc. Contents About vSphere Virtual Machine Administration 7 Updated Information 9 1 Introduction to VMware vSphere Virtual Machines 11 What Is a Virtual Machine? 11 Virtual Machines and the Virtual Infrastructure 12 Virtual Machine Lifecycle 13 Virtual Machine Components 13 Virtual Machine Hardware Available to vSphere Virtual Machines Virtual Machine Options and Resources 15 vSphere Web Client 16 VMware Tools 17 Where to Go From Here 17 13 2 Deploying Virtual Machines 19 About Provisioning Virtual Machines 19 Create a Virtual Machine Without a Template or Clone 20 Deploy a Virtual Machine from a Template 26 Clone a Virtual Machine 32 Clone a Virtual Machine to a Template in the vSphere Web Client Clone a Template to a Template in the vSphere Web Client 41 Convert a Template to a Virtual Machine 45 Customizing Guest Operating Systems 47 37 3 Deploying OVF Templates 63 OVF File Format and OVF Templates 63 Deploy an OVF Template in the vSphere Web Client 64 Browse VMware Virtual Appliance Marketplace 67 Export an OVF Template 68 4 Using Content Libraries 71 Create a Library 72 Synchronize a Subscribed Library 74 Edit the Settings of a Local Library 74 Edit the Settings of a Subscribed Library 75 Delete a Content Library 75 Hierarchical Inheritance of Permissions for Content Libraries 76 Sample User Role for Working with Content Libraries 78 Populating Libraries with Content 78 Working with Items in a Library 81 VMware, Inc. 3 vSphere Virtual Machine Administration Creating Virtual Machines and vApps from Templates in a Content Library 84 5 Installing the Microsoft Sysprep Tool 87 Install the Microsoft Sysprep Tool from a Microsoft Web Site 87 Install the Microsoft Sysprep Tool from the Windows Operating System CD 88 6 Configuring Virtual Machine Hardware 89 Virtual Machine Compatibility 89 Virtual CPU Configuration 95 Virtual Memory Configuration 102 Network Virtual Machine Configuration 104 Parallel and Serial Port Configuration 108 Virtual Disk Configuration 115 SCSI and SATA Storage Controller Conditions, Limitations, and Compatibility 126 Other Virtual Machine Device Configuration 131 Reduce Memory Overhead for Virtual machines with 3D graphics Option 140 USB Configuration from an ESXi Host to a Virtual Machine 140 USB Configuration from a Client Computer to a Virtual Machine 147 Add a Shared Smart Card Reader to Virtual Machines 152 7 Configuring Virtual Machine Options 155 Virtual Machine Option Overview 155 Change the Virtual Machine Name 156 View the Virtual Machine Configuration and Working File Location 157 Change the Configured Guest Operating System 157 Configuring User Mappings on Guest Operating Systems 157 Change the Virtual Machine Console Options for Remote Users 159 Configure the Virtual Machine Power States 159 Configure Virtual Machines to Automatically Upgrade VMware Tools 160 Manage Power Management Settings for a Virtual Machine 161 Delay the Boot Sequence 162 Disable Virtual Machine Acceleration 162 Enable Virtual Machine Logging 162 Configure Virtual Machine Debugging and Statistics 163 Change the Swap File Location 163 Edit Configuration File Parameters 164 Configure Fibre Channel NPIV Settings 164 8 Managing Multi-Tiered Applications with vSphere vApp 167 Create a vApp 168 Create a Virtual Machine, Resource Pool, or Child vApp Inside a vApp 169 Add Virtual Machine or Child vApp to a vApp 169 Edit vApp Settings 169 Clone a vApp 174 Perform vApp Power Operations 175 Edit vApp Notes 176 Add a Network Protocol Profile 176 Virtual Machine vApp Options 180 4 VMware, Inc. Contents 9 Monitoring Solutions with the vCenter Solutions Manager 185 Viewing Solutions 185 Monitoring Agents 186 10 Managing Virtual Machines 187 Edit Virtual Machine Startup and Shutdown Settings 187 Install the Client Integration Plug-In 189 Open a Virtual Machine Console 189 Install the VMware Remote Console Application 190 Using the VMware Remote Console Application 190 Adding and Removing Virtual Machines 191 Change the Template Name 192 Deleting Templates 193 Using Snapshots To Manage Virtual Machines 194 11 VMware Tools Components, Configuration Options, and Security Requirements 205 Components of VMware Tools 205 Repairing, Changing, and Uninstalling VMware Tools Components 209 Security Considerations for Configuring VMware Tools 211 Using vmwtool to Configure VMware Tools in a NetWare Virtual Machine Using the VMware Tools Configuration Utility 215 214 12 Upgrading Virtual Machines 227 Upgrading VMware Tools 228 Installing VMware Tools 229 Planning Downtime for Virtual Machines 231 Downtime for Upgrading Virtual Machines 231 Manually Install or Upgrade VMware Tools in a Windows Virtual Machine 232 Automate VMware Tools Installation for Multiple Windows Virtual Machines 234 Manually Install or Upgrade VMware Tools in a Linux Virtual Machine 238 Operating System Specific Packages for Linux Guest Operating Systems 240 Manually Install or Upgrade VMware Tools in a Mac OS X Virtual Machine 241 Manually Install or Upgrade VMware Tools in a Solaris Virtual Machine 241 Manually Install or Upgrade VMware Tools in a NetWare Virtual Machine 243 Manually Install or Upgrade VMware Tools in a FreeBSD Virtual Machine 245 Upgrade VMware Tools 246 Perform an Automatic Upgrade of VMware Tools 247 Upgrade the Compatibility for Virtual Machines 248 Schedule a Compatibility Upgrade for Virtual Machines 249 13 Required Privileges for Common Tasks 251 Index 255 VMware, Inc. 5 vSphere Virtual Machine Administration 6 VMware, Inc. About vSphere Virtual Machine Administration vSphere Virtual Machine Administration describes how to create, configure, and manage virtual machines in ® the VMware vSphere environment. In addition, this information provides introductions to the tasks that you can do within the system as well as cross-references to the information that describes the tasks. This information focuses on managing virtual machines in the VMware vSphere Web Client and includes the following information. n Creating and deploying virtual machines, templates, and clones n Deploying OVF templates n Configuring virtual machine hardware and options n Managing multitiered applications with VMware vSphere vApp n Monitoring solutions with the vCenter Solution Manager n Managing virtual machines, including using snapshots n Configuring and installing VMware tools n Upgrading virtual machines vSphere Virtual Machine Administration covers VMware ESXi™ and VMware vCenter Server™. Intended Audience This information is written for experienced Windows or Linux system administrators who are familiar with virtualization. VMware, Inc. 7 vSphere Virtual Machine Administration 8 VMware, Inc. Updated Information This vSphere Virtual Machine Administration documentation is updated with each release of the product or when necessary. This table provides the update history of the vSphere Virtual Machine Administration documentation. Revision Description EN-001472-02 Added information in “Upgrading VMware Tools,” on page 228 that upgrading VMware Tools on a Windows guest operating system also installs the WDDM graphics drivers. EN-001472-01 n n EN-001472-00 VMware, Inc. Added a new procedure about how to customize the guest operating system of an existing virtual machine. See “Apply a Customization Specification to a Virtual Machine,” on page 54. Updated procedures for installing VMware Tools depending on the operating system. See “Installing VMware Tools,” on page 229. Initial release. 9 vSphere Virtual Machine Administration 10 VMware, Inc. Introduction to VMware vSphere Virtual Machines 1 Before you start creating and managing virtual machines, you benefit from some background information, for example, the virtual machine lifecycle, components, and VMware Tools. This chapter includes the following topics: n “What Is a Virtual Machine?,” on page 11 n “Virtual Machines and the Virtual Infrastructure,” on page 12 n “Virtual Machine Lifecycle,” on page 13 n “Virtual Machine Components,” on page 13 n “Virtual Machine Hardware Available to vSphere Virtual Machines,” on page 13 n “Virtual Machine Options and Resources,” on page 15 n “vSphere Web Client,” on page 16 n “VMware Tools,” on page 17 n “Where to Go From Here,” on page 17 What Is a Virtual Machine? A virtual machine is a software computer that, like a physical computer, runs an operating system and applications. The virtual machine consists of a set of specification and configuration files and is backed by the physical resources of a host. Every virtual machine has virtual devices that provide the same functionality as physical hardware are more portable, more secure, and easier to manage. A virtual machine consists of several files that are stored on a storage device. The key files are the configuration file, virtual disk file, NVRAM setting file, and log file. You configure virtual machine settings through the vSphere Web Client, one of the vSphere command-line interfaces (PowerCLI, vCLI) or the vSphere Web Services SDK. CAUTION Do not change, move, or delete virtual machine files without instructions from a VMware Technical Support representative. Table 1‑1. Virtual Machine Files File Usage Description .vmx vmname.vmx Virtual machine configuration file .vmxf vmname.vmxf Additional virtual machine configuration files .vmdk vmname.vmdk Virtual disk characteristics -flat.vmdk vmname-flat.vmdk Virtual machine data disk VMware, Inc. 11 vSphere Virtual Machine Administration Table 1‑1. Virtual Machine Files (Continued) File Usage Description .nvram vmname.nvram or nvram Virtual machine BIOS or EFI configuration .vmsd vmname.vmsd Virtual machine snapshots .vmsn vmname.vmsn Virtual machine snapshot data file .vswp vmname.vswp Virtual machine swap file .vmss vmname.vmss Virtual machine suspend file .log vmware.log Current virtual machine log file -#.log vmware-#.log (where # is a number starting with 1) Old virtual machine log files Virtual Machines and the Virtual Infrastructure The infrastructure that supports virtual machines consists of at least two software layers, virtualization and management. In vSphere, ESXi provides the virtualization capabilities that aggregate and present the host hardware to virtual machines as a normalized set of resources. Virtual machines can run on ESXi hosts that vCenter Server manages. vCenter Server lets you pool and manage the resources of multiple hosts and lets you effectively monitor and manage your physical and virtual infrastructure. You can manage resources for virtual machines, provision virtual machines, schedule tasks, collect statistics logs, create templates, and more. vCenter Server also provides vSphere vMotion ™, vSphere Storage vMotion, vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS), vSphere High Availability (HA), and vSphere Fault Tolerance. These services enable efficient and automated resource management and high availability for virtual machines. The VMware vSphere Web Client is the interface to vCenter Server, ESXi hosts, and virtual machines. With the vSphere Web Client, you can connect remotely to vCenter Server. The vSphere Web Client is the primary interface for managing all aspects of the vSphere environment. It also provides console access to virtual machines. NOTE For information about running virtual machines on an isolated ESXi host, see the vSphere Single Host Management documentation. The vSphere Web Client presents the organizational hierarchy of managed objects in inventory views. Inventories are the hierarchal structure used by vCenter Server or the host to organize managed objects. This hierarchy includes the monitored objects in vCenter Server. In the vCenter Server hierarchy, a data center is the primary container of ESXi hosts, folders, clusters, resource pools, vSphere vApps, virtual machines, and so on. Datastores are virtual representations of underlying physical storage resources in the data center. A datastore is the storage location (for example, a physical disk or LUN on a RAID, or a SAN) for virtual machine files. Datastores hide the idiosyncrasies of the underlying physical storage and present a uniform model for the storage resources required by virtual machines. For some resources, options, or hardware to be available to virtual machines, the host must have the appropriate vSphere license. Licensing in vSphere is applicable to ESXi hosts, vCenter Server, and solutions. Licensing can be based on different criteria, depending on the specifics of each product. For details about vSphere licensing, see the vCenter Server and Host Management documentation. 12 VMware, Inc. Chapter 1 Introduction to VMware vSphere Virtual Machines Virtual Machine Lifecycle You create and deploy virtual machines into your datacenter in a several ways. You can create a single virtual machine and install a guest operating system and VMware Tools on it. You can clone or create a template from an existing virtual machine, or deploy OVF templates. The vSphere Web Client New Virtual Machine wizard and Virtual Machine Properties editor let you add, configure, or remove most of the virtual machine's hardware, options, and resources. You monitor CPU, memory, disk, network, and storage metrics using the performance charts in the vSphere Web Client. Snapshots let you capture the state of the virtual machine, including the virtual machine memory, settings, and virtual disks. You can roll back to the previous virtual machine state when needed. With vSphere vApps, you can manage multitiered applications. You use vSphere Update Manager to perform orchestrated upgrades to upgrade the virtual hardware and VMware Tools of virtual machines in the inventory at the same time. When a virtual machine is no longer needed, you can remove it from the inventory without deleting it from the datastore, or you can delete the virtual machine and all its files. Virtual Machine Components Virtual machines typically have an operating system, VMware Tools, and virtual resources and hardware that you manage in much the same way as you would manage a physical computer. You install a guest operating system on a virtual machine the same way as you install an operating system on a physical computer. You must have a CD/DVD-ROM or ISO image containing the installation files from an operating system vendor. VMware Tools is a suite of utilities that enhances the performance of the virtual machine's guest operating system and improves management of the virtual machine. With VMware Tools, you have more control over the virtual machine interface. In the vSphere Web Client, you assign each virtual machine to a compatible ESXi host version, cluster, or datacenter by applying a compatibility setting. The compatibility setting determines which ESXi host versions the virtual machine can run on and the hardware features available to the virtual machine. The hardware devices listed in the Virtual Machine Properties editor complete the virtual machine. Not all devices are configurable. Some hardware devices are part of the virtual motherboard and appear in the expanded device list of the Virtual Machine Properties editor, but you cannot modify or remove them. For a list of hardware devices and their functions, see “Virtual Machine Hardware Available to vSphere Virtual Machines,” on page 13. Access to a virtual machine is controlled by the vSphere administrator. Virtual Machine Hardware Available to vSphere Virtual Machines VMware provides devices, resources, profiles, and vServices that you can configure or add to your virtual machine. Virtual Machine Hardware Not all hardware devices are available to every virtual machine. The host that the virtual machine runs on and the guest operating system must support devices that you add or configurations that you make. To verify support for a device in your environment, see the VMware Compatibility Guide at or the Guest Operating System Installation Guide at . VMware, Inc. 13 vSphere Virtual Machine Administration In some cases, the host might not have the required vSphere license for a resource or device. Licensing in vSphere is applicable to ESXi hosts, vCenter Server, and solutions and can be based on different criteria, depending on the specifics of each product. For information about vSphere licensing, see the vCenter Server and Host Management documentation. The PCI and SIO virtual hardware devices are part of the virtual motherboard, but cannot be configured or removed. Table 1‑2. Virtual Machine Hardware and Descriptions 14 Hardware Device Description CPU You can configure a virtual machine that runs on an ESXi host to have one or more virtual processors. A virtual machine cannot have more virtual CPUs than the actual number of logical CPUs on the host. You can change the number of CPUs allocated to a virtual machine and configure advanced CPU features, such as the CPU Identification Mask and hyperthreaded core sharing. Chipset The motherboard uses VMware proprietary devices based on the following chips: n Intel 440BX AGPset 82443BX Host Bridge/Controller n Intel 82371AB (PIIX4) PCI ISA IDE Xcelerator n National Semiconductor PC87338 ACPI 1.0 and PC98/99 Compliant SuperI/O n Intel 82093AA I/O Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller DVD/CD-ROM Drive Installed by default when you create a new vSphere virtual machine. You can configure DVD/CD-ROM devices to connect to client devices, host devices, or datastore ISO files. You can add, remove, or configure DVD/CD-ROM devices. Floppy Drive Installed by default when you create a new vSphere virtual machine. You can connect to a floppy drive located on the ESXi host, a floppy (.flp) image, or the floppy drive on your local system. You can add, remove, or configure floppy devices. Hard Disk Stores the virtual machine's operating system, program files, and other data associated with its activities. A virtual disk is a large physical file, or a set of files, that can be copied, moved, archived, and backed up as easily as any other file. IDE 0, IDE 1 By default, two Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interfaces are presented to the virtual machine. The IDE interface (controller) is a standard way for storage devices (Floppy drives, hard drives and CD-ROM drives) to connect to the virtual machine. Keyboard Mirrors the keyboard that is connected to the virtual machine console when you first connect to the console. Memory The virtual hardware memory size determines how much memory applications that are running inside the virtual machine have available to them. A virtual machine cannot benefit from more memory resources than its configured virtual hardware memory size. Network Adapter ESXi networking features provide communication between virtual machines on the same host, between virtual machines on different hosts, and between other virtual and physical machines. When you configure a virtual machine, you can add network adapters (NICs) and specify the adapter type. Parallel port Interface for connecting peripherals to the virtual machine. The virtual parallel port can connect to a file. You can add, remove, or configure virtual parallel ports. PCI controller Bus on the virtual machine motherboard that communicates with components such as hard disks and other devices. One PCI controller is presented to the virt...
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