07 6-25-19 Primate dietary diversity.pdf - PRIMATE AND...

This preview shows page 1 - 10 out of 39 pages.

PRIMATE AND HUMAN DIETARY DIVERSITY Dr. Thomas Cody Prang Email: [email protected] ANTHP 105 Hunter College Summer 2019
Today’s Outline 1. Food Quality vs Body Size 2. Adaptations to different diets: physical and behavioral 3. Food quality vs Territoriality 4. Optimal Foraging Theory 5. Local Adaptations to Diet: lactase, amylase, arsenic 6. Social Organization in Apes & Humans Male vs. female strategies Monogamy, Poly gamy , Poly gyny , Poly andry
ENERGETICS and BODY SIZE KLEIBER’s LAW kCal/day = 201.65Mass 0.76 R² = 0.96 1 10 100 1000 10000 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Daily Energy Expenditure (KiloCalories per Day) Body Mass (kg) Expected relationship if “Pound for Pound” Energy Needs were the Same for All Mammals Observed relationship : CALORIES / DAY = k BODY MASS 0.75 What does this mean for animals’ energy needs? Larger animals burn more energy per day BUT, pound-for-pound, small animals burn energy much faster! Small animals need high-energy foods! Each dot = One species 0.75
100 150 200 250 300 350 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 BODY MASS (kg) DIET QUALITY PRIMATE DIET and BODY SIZE Smaller species have high-quality diets, as predicted by Kleiber’s Law Humans: Higher Diet Quality than Expected for our Body Size
Small Incisors Molars with Shearing Crests to slice leaves Teeth and Guts evolve to fit the Diet Big Incisors Low, Rounded Molars Frugivore Folivore Mostly eats Fruit Mostly eats Leaves
Teeth and Guts evolve to fit the Diet example COLOBINE MONKEYS SACCULATED STOMACHS Adaptation for digesting seeds and leaves
Brains & Behavior also evolve to fit the Diet… Tools & big smart brains Primates (including humans) Color vision, emphasis on visual & tactile cues for fruit ripeness
DIET & BRAINS Spider Monkey Howler Monkey 50 grams 107 grams High-Quality Foods are Hard to Acquire! Creates Selection for Intelligence to find Food. Body Mass 6 8 kg Diet 72% FRUIT 22% LEAVES Brain Size 107 g Small Digestive Tract Body Mass 6 8 kg Diet 42% FRUIT 48% LEAVES Brain Size 50 g Large Digestive Tract
7 6 5 4 Millions of Years Ago Living Apes Early Hominins & Australopithecus : Plant-Based Diets

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture