REUWS2 Project Report 20131204.pdf - RESIDENTIAL END USES OF WATER STUDY 2013 UPDATE i Page ii is for Water Research Foundation use RESIDENTIAL END USES

REUWS2 Project Report 20131204.pdf - RESIDENTIAL END USES...

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Unformatted text preview: RESIDENTIAL END USES OF WATER STUDY 2013 UPDATE i Page ii is for Water Research Foundation use. RESIDENTIAL END USES OF WATER STUDY UPDATE Prepared by: William B. DeOreo, P.E., Peter W. Mayer, P.E. Aquacraft, Inc. Water Engineering and Management 2709 Pine Street, Boulder, CO Sponsored by: Water Research Foundation 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, CO 80235 Published by: Water Research Foundation DISCLAIMER This study was funded by the Water Research Foundation (Foundation). The Foundation assumes no responsibility for the content of the research study reported in this publication or for the opinions or statements of fact expressed in the report. The mention of trade names for commercial products does not represent or imply the approval or endorsement of the Foundation. This report is presented solely for informational purposes. Copyright © 2014 by Water Research Foundation ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this publication may be copied, reproduced or otherwise utilized without permission. ISBN xxx-x-xxxxx-xxx-x Printed in the U.S.A. 5| RESIDENTIAL END USES OF WATER STUDY UPDATE TABLE OF CONTENTS RESIDENTIAL END USES OF WATER STUDY 2013 UPDATE i RESIDENTIAL END USES OF WATER STUDY UPDATE .................................................... III DISCLAIMER .............................................................................................................................. IV TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................... V LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................ XI LIST OF FIGURES .....................................................................................................................XV CONVERSION FACTORS .....................................................................................................XVIII FOREWORD ............................................................................................................................. XIX ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ......................................................................................................... XXI EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .....................................................................................................XXIII OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................ xxiii BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................... xxiii APPROACH .................................................................................................................. xxiv LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................... xxv RESULTS ...................................................................................................................... xxvi Results from Surveys ............................................................................................... xxvi Results from Billing Analysis ................................................................................ xxviii Results form End Use Analysis ............................................................................... xxix Hot Water Use........................................................................................................ xxxvi Outdoor Use ........................................................................................................... xxxvi Diurnal Use .................................................................................................................. xl Models of Water Use .................................................................................................. xli Benchmarking and Estimates of Conservation Potential .......................................... xliii CONCLUSIONS.............................................................................................................. xlv From the Agency Surveys .......................................................................................... xlv From the Customer Surveys...................................................................................... xlvi From Water Use Statistics ....................................................................................... xlvii From Models ............................................................................................................. xlix From Benchmarks .......................................................................................................... l APPLICATIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS. ...................................................................... l MULTIMEDIA .................................................................................................................. lii INTRODUCTION AND GOALS OF PROJECT ........................................................................ 53 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................................. 56 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 56 v vi | RESIDENTIAL END USES OF WATER STUDY UPDATE HUNTER CURVES.......................................................................................................... 56 1984 HUD STUDY........................................................................................................... 57 NEW APPROACHES IN THE 1990’S ............................................................................ 58 FLOW TRACE ANALYSIS ............................................................................................ 59 HEATHERWOOD STUDIES .......................................................................................... 60 1999 RESIDENTIAL END USES OF WATER .............................................................. 61 END USE RESEARCH: AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND ................................... 62 TARGETED END USE STUDIES IN THE U.S. ............................................................ 65 CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL BASELINE AND EPA NEW HOME STUDIES ........ 66 END USE RESEARCH IN EUROPE AND BEYOND ................................................... 67 RECENT END USE RESEARCH IN THE U.S. ............................................................. 68 RESEARCH METHODS ............................................................................................................. 69 OVERALL STUDY ORGANIZATION .......................................................................... 69 OBTAIN INFORMATION FROM UTILITIES .............................................................. 69 Utility Information Part 1 – Selecting the Sample of 1,000 SF customers (Q1000) .. 69 Utility Information Part 2 – Utility and Program Information ................................... 70 Utility Information Part 3 – GIS and parcel level data (Level 1 sites only) ............... 70 SURVEY IMPLEMENTATION ...................................................................................... 72 SELECTION OF LOGGING GROUPS ........................................................................... 72 SELECTION OF HOT WATER GROUPS ..................................................................... 73 LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS .............................................................................................. 73 Irrigated Areas and Efficiencies.................................................................................. 74 Landscape Ratios ........................................................................................................ 74 Theoretical Irrigation Efficiencies .............................................................................. 74 Estimation of Annual Outdoor Water Use .................................................................. 75 Application Ratios ...................................................................................................... 76 DATA LOGGING ............................................................................................................ 76 FLOW TRACE ANALYSIS ............................................................................................ 76 TRACE WIZARD IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON HOUSEHOLD FIXTURES .... 78 Toilets ......................................................................................................................... 79 Clothes Washers.......................................................................................................... 81 Showers ....................................................................................................................... 83 Dishwashers ................................................................................................................ 85 Water Treatment ......................................................................................................... 85 Leakage & Continuous Events.................................................................................... 86 Irrigation ..................................................................................................................... 88 Faucet Use ................................................................................................................... 90 Other Uses ................................................................................................................... 90 DATABASE CONSTRUCTION ..................................................................................... 90 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS .......................................................................................... 90 REGRESSION MODELING............................................................................................ 90 INFORMATION ON PARTICIPATING AGENCIES ................................................................ 91 SELECTION OF STUDY SITES ..................................................................................... 91 DEMOGRAPHICS AND CENSUS INFORMATION .................................................... 92 CLIMATE AND DROUGHT........................................................................................... 94 TABLE OF Contents | vii Measures of Climate ................................................................................................... 94 Official Drought Status ............................................................................................... 97 CUSTOMER BASE.......................................................................................................... 99 Size.............................................................................................................................. 99 Sectors ....................................................................................................................... 100 Trends in Expansion and Contraction ....................................................................... 101 WATER SUPPLY .......................................................................................................... 102 WATER RATES............................................................................................................. 103 Blocks and Breakpoints ............................................................................................ 103 Billed Amounts and Average Prices ......................................................................... 105 Marginal Prices ......................................................................................................... 112 CONSERVATION PRACTICES ................................................................................... 114 Staffing and Budget .................................................................................................. 114 Indoor Conservation Measures ................................................................................. 115 Irrigation Conservation ............................................................................................. 119 Information for Households ...................................................................................... 122 Conservation Planning .............................................................................................. 123 Water Loss ................................................................................................................ 125 SUMMARY OF SURVEY RESPONSES ................................................................................. 127 RESPONSE RATE ......................................................................................................... 127 COMPARISON OF SURVEY RESPONSES ................................................................ 128 Survey Questions ...................................................................................................... 128 Hardware Survey Responses..................................................................................... 129 Demographics ........................................................................................................... 135 Behavior .................................................................................................................... 138 Irrigation ................................................................................................................... 141 Judgment ................................................................................................................... 143 PROJECT DATABASES ........................................................................................................... 147 SURVEY RESPONSE DATA ....................................................................................... 148 FLOW TRACE DATA ................................................................................................... 148 COMBINED DATA ....................................................................................................... 148 DAILY USE DATA ....................................................................................................... 149 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS .................................................................................................... 149 ANNUAL AND SEASONAL USE................................................................................ 149 INDOOR END USES OF WATER ................................................................................ 154 Total Indoor Household Water Use .......................................................................... 154 Comparison of Non-seasonal and Indoor Water Use ............................................... 157 Indoor End Use Analysis .......................................................................................... 160 Penetration Rates for High Efficiency Devices ........................................................ 182 HOT WATER USE......................................................................................................... 183 Daily Hot Water Use ................................................................................................. 183 Energy Use for Water Heating .................................................................................. 185 Seasonal Use of Hot Water ....................................................................................... 185 Hot Water Use for End Uses ..................................................................................... 186 viii | RESIDENTIAL END USES OF WATER STUDY UPDATE OUTDOOR USE ANALYSIS ........................................................................................ 190 Lot Size and Landscape Area ................................................................................... 190 Outdoor Water Use ................................................................................................... 194 Irrigation Application Rates ...................................................................................... 194 Theoretical Irrigation Requirements ......................................................................... 195 Irrigation Application Ratios .................................................................................... 196 Excess and Net Irrigation Volumes .......................................................................... 199 DIURNAL USE .............................................................................................................. 201 MODELS OF WATER USE ...................................................................................................... 204 DESCRIPTION OF MODELING DATABASE ............................................................ 206 DEFINITION OF DEPENDENT VARIABLES ............................................................ 206 MODEL ESTIMATION AND SPECIFICATION PROCESSES .................................. 207 Models of indoor uses ............................................................................................... 208 MODELS OF SELECTED “INDOOR” END USES ..................................................... 211 Toilet Flushing .......................................................................................................... 211 Showers and Baths .................................................................................................... 213 Clothes Washers........................................................................................................ 214 Faucets ...................................................................................................................... 215 Leaks ......................................................................................................................... 217 Summary Comparison of Estimated “Indoor” Elasticities ....................................... 218 Example Application of Results ............................................................................... 219 MODEL OF LANDSCAPE USE ................................................................................... 221 ASSESSMENT OF CONSERVATION POTENTIAL AND BENCHMARKING .................. 225 ANALYSIS OF BILLING DATA SUMMARIES BY CUSTOMER SECTORS ......... 225 Comparisons of Annual Usage Rates in Single-Family Sector ................................ 229 Single-Family Seasonal and Non-seasonal Usage Rates .......................................... 230 INDOOR USE BENCHMARKS FROM END USE LOGGING DATA ...................... 233 Comparison of REUWS #1 and #2 Studies – Water Savings ................................... 235 Conservation Benchmarks and Water Savings Potential .......................................... 236 Conservation Benchmarks for Ultra-Efficient Fixtures and Appliances .................. 237 Indoor Conservation Index for Individual Study Sites ............................................. 240 Outdoor Use Benchmarks from Landscape Analysis and End Use Logging Data... 246 Feasibility of Developing Benchmarks for Outdoor Use ......................................... 246 Estimating Conservation Potential in Outdoor Water Use ....................................... 247 Long-Term Conservation Potential and Short-Term Drought Contingency Curtailment ............................................................................................................... 249 CONCLUSIONS......................................................................................................................... 251 From the Agency Surveys ......................................................................................... 251 From the Customer Surveys...................................................................................... 251 From Water Use Statistics ........................................................................................ 252 From Models .....................................
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