PSYCHOLOGY FINAL EXAM
Personality is an individual’s relatively consistent pattern of thinking, feeling,
Freud’s theory, psychoanalysis refers to the treatment of psychological
disorders by seeking to expose and interpret the tensions within a patient’s
unconscious, using methods such as free association.
UNCONSCIOUS MIND In Freud’s theory, the unconscious is the repository of
mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to
contemporary psychologists, it is a level of information processing of which we
In Freud’s theory, the id is the system of personality consisting of basic sexual
and aggressive drives, that supplies psychic energy to personality.
In psychoanalytic theory, the ego is the conscious division of personality that
attempts to mediate between the demands of the Id, the superego, and reality.
In Freud’s theory, the superego is the division of personality that contains the
conscience and develops by incorporating the Perceived moral standards of
Freud’s psychosexual stages are developmental periods children pass through
during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies are focused on different
During the oral stage, which lasts throughout the first 18 months of life,
pleasure centers on activities of the mouth.
The anal stage, lasting from 18 months to 3 years, shifts the source of
gratification to bladder and bowel retention, elimination and control.
During the phallic stage, from 3 to 6 years, the genitals become the
According to Freud, boys in the phallic stage develop a collection of feelings,
known as the Oedipus complex, that center on sexual attraction to the mother
and resentment of the father. Some psychologists believe girls have a parallel
Electra Complex. OEDIPUS/ELECTRA COMPLEX: according to Freud, a boy’s
sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the
In Freud’s theory, defense mechanisms are the ego’s methods of
unconsciously protecting itself against anxiety by distorting Reality. They are
tactics that reduce or redirect anxiety by distorting reality. Repression:
basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings,
and memories from consciousness. Regression
: an individual faced with
anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic
energy remains fixated. Reaction formation
: the ego unconsciously switches
unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings
that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings. Projection
people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.