psychology Key Terms

psychology Key Terms - Key Terms - Intro 1. Psychology is...

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Key Terms - Intro 1. Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. 2. The nature-nurture issue is the controversy over the relative contributions of biology (nature) and experience (nurture) to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. 3. Basic research aims to increase psychology’s scientific knowledge base, rather than to solve practical problems. 4. Applied research aims to solve specific practical problems. 5. Clinical psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the study, assessment, and treatment of people with psychological disorders. 6. Psychiatry is the branch of medicine concerned with the physical diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Key Terms - Methods 1. Critical thinking is careful reasoning that examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and conclusions, and does not blindly accept arguments. 2. Hindsight bias refers to the tendency to exaggerate the obviousness of an outcome—including a psychological research finding—after one has heard about it. 3. A theory is an integrated set of principles that organizes a set of observations and makes testable predictions. 4. A hypothesis is a testable prediction derived from a theory; testing the hypothesis helps scientists to test the theory. Example: In order to test his theory of why people conform, Solomon Asch formulated the testable hypothesis that an individual would be more likely to go along with the majority opinion of a large group than with that of a smaller group. 5. Replication is the process of repeating an experiment, often with different subjects and in different situations, in order to test the reliability of experimental findings. 6. The case study is a descriptive research strategy in which one person is studied in great depth, often with the intention of discovering general principles. 7. The survey is a descriptive research strategy in which a sample of people are questioned about their attitudes or behavior. 8. The false consensus effect is the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. 9. A population consists of all the members of a group being studied. 10. A random sample is one that is representative because every member of the population has an equal chance of being included. 11. Naturalistic observation involves observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations, without trying to influence the situation. 12. Correlation is a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two factors vary together and thus how well one factor can be predicted from the other; correlations can be positive or negative. Example: If there is a positive correlation between air temperature and ice cream sales, the warmer (higher) it is, the more ice cream is sold. If there is a negative correlation between air temperature and sales of cocoa, the cooler (lower) it is, the more cocoa is sold. 13.
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course ? ? taught by Professor ? during the Fall '05 term at Indian Hills CC.

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psychology Key Terms - Key Terms - Intro 1. Psychology is...

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