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Understanding the alterations of hematologic functions are essential for the advanced practice nurse (APN) to diagnose and treat appropriately. Anemia is one alteration that occurs when there is a reduction of erythrocytes in the blood or a decrease in the quality or amount of hemoglobin (Huether & McCance, 2017). The purpose of this discussion is to explain the pathophysiology of iron deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia, while comparing them and the potential causes, and to discuss how genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the disorders.Pathophysiology of Iron Deficiency AnemiaWith iron deficiency anemia (IDA) being the most common type, it results from one or both etiologies, inadequate dietary consumption and chronic blood loss, which is a depletion of iron stores and the reduction of hemoglobin synthesis (Huether & McCance, 2017). Iron assists in the immune function by regulating immune effector mechanisms (Huether & McCance, 2017).IDA is common in pregnant women and those experiencing menorrhagia, as well as other conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, such as ulcers, esophageal varices, cancer, cirrhosis, and ulcerative colitis (Peate & Jones, 2014). The body is continuously in need of iron in the form of hemoglobin (Huether & McCance, 2017). Blood loss contributes to the disruption of the bodies ability to balance iron used as hemoglobin and iron stored for future synthesis (Huether & McCance, 2017). Pathophysiology of Pernicious AnemiaPernicious anemia (PA) is caused by vitamin B12deficiency which is essential in the nuclear maturation and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in red blood cells (Huether & McCance, 2017). It results due to the absence of intrinsic factor (IF), which transports vitamin