Chapter 1 - Chapter 1: First Civilization (Part 1) Early...

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Chapter 1: First Civilization (Part 1) Early human beings formed small groups and developed a simple culture in order to survive; developed greater complexity and civilization began: 1. An urban focus : development of towns and cities 2. A distinct religious structure : Gods were crucial to community success; priestly classes 3. New political and military structures. Organized government bureaucracy and armies. 4. New social structure based on economic power: including large group of free common people (farmers, artisans, craftspeople) and at the very bottom, slaves. 5. Development of writing to keep records. 6. New artistic and intellectual activity . Monumental architectural structures. First civilizations emerged in six areas : River Valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates, the Nile, the Indus, the Yellow River, Central Asia, Supe River Valley of Peru. City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia: Maps The creators of Mesopotamian civilizations were the Sumerians: By 3000 B.C. established independent [free of control] cities in South Mesopotamia Grew larger, forming city-states [larger than a city has more influence], the basic units of Sumerian Civilizations. Believed that the gods ruled the cities, making it a Theocracy [religion is the form of government]. Kingship had divine right [chosen by Gods to rule]; power from and agents of the gods. Economy was primarily agricultural commerce and industry important as well. Invention of the wheel circa 3000 BC 3 major social groups : noble [royal blood], commoners, and slaves 90% or more of the population were farmers Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia: (maps, cuneiform, etc.) New conflicts arose as city-states fought for control of land and water Located on the flat, open land of Mesopotamia, made them vulnerable to invasion Circa 2340 B.C., Sargon , leader of the Akkadians, overran the Sumerian city-states Period of economic growth, prosperity, and cultural flowering Attacks by neighboring peoples caused the Akkadian Empire to fall by 2100 B.C. Return to independent city-states in Mesopotamia until Ur-Nammu of Ur Third Dynasty [how long a family rules for] of Ur (c. 2112-2000 B.C.) was final flowering of Sumerian culture 6 th king of the Amorite dynasty, Hammurabi, established a new empire o Hammurabi (1792 – 1750 B.C.) had a well-disciplined army of foot soldiers o Learned to divide and conquer ; reunified Mesopotamia; new capital at Babylon o Assimilated [take many things and put them together as one] Mesopotamian culture; built temples, defensive walls, and irrigation canals; encouraged trade; and brought about an economic revival 1550 B.C.: Kassites from the northeast took over Mesopotamian Religion [always about the afterlife]: Mesopotamians viewed their city-states as earthly copies of a divine model and order Each city-state was sacred because it was linked to a god or goddess
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Located at the heart of each major city-state was a temple complex; ziggurat [temple complex] with
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Chapter 1 - Chapter 1: First Civilization (Part 1) Early...

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