Chapter 1: First Civilization
Early human beings formed small groups and developed a simple culture in order to survive; developed
and civilization began:
: development of towns and cities
distinct religious structure
: Gods were crucial to community success; priestly classes
New political and military structures.
Organized government bureaucracy and armies.
New social structure
power: including large group of free common people
(farmers, artisans, craftspeople) and at the very bottom, slaves.
Development of writing
to keep records.
New artistic and intellectual activity
. Monumental architectural structures.
First civilizations emerged in
: River Valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates, the Nile, the Indus, the
Yellow River, Central Asia, Supe River Valley of Peru.
City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia: Maps
The creators of Mesopotamian civilizations were the Sumerians:
By 3000 B.C. established independent [free of control] cities in South Mesopotamia
Grew larger, forming city-states [larger than a city has more influence], the
Believed that the gods ruled the cities, making it a
[religion is the form of government].
[chosen by Gods to rule]; power from and agents of the gods.
Economy was primarily
commerce and industry important as well.
Invention of the wheel circa 3000 BC
3 major social groups
: noble [royal blood], commoners, and slaves
90% or more of the population were farmers
Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia: (maps, cuneiform, etc.)
New conflicts arose as city-states fought for control of land and water
Located on the flat, open land of Mesopotamia, made them vulnerable to invasion
Circa 2340 B.C.,
, leader of the Akkadians, overran the Sumerian city-states
Period of economic growth, prosperity, and cultural flowering
Attacks by neighboring peoples caused the Akkadian Empire to fall by 2100 B.C.
Return to independent city-states in Mesopotamia until Ur-Nammu of Ur
Third Dynasty [how long a family rules for] of Ur (c. 2112-2000 B.C.) was final flowering of
king of the Amorite dynasty, Hammurabi, established a new empire
Hammurabi (1792 – 1750 B.C.) had a well-disciplined army of foot soldiers
divide and conquer
; reunified Mesopotamia; new capital at Babylon
Assimilated [take many things and put them together as one] Mesopotamian culture; built
temples, defensive walls, and irrigation canals; encouraged trade; and brought about an
1550 B.C.: Kassites from the northeast took over
Mesopotamian Religion [always about the afterlife]:
Mesopotamians viewed their city-states as
of a divine model and order
Each city-state was
because it was linked to a god or goddess