CHAPTER 4A - CHAPTER 4A Geography played an important role...

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CHAPTER 4A Geography played an important role in the evolution of Greek history Small area; mountainous peninsula, 45,000 square miles Long seacoast, dotted by bays and inlets, and harbors; islands Greece mostly small plains, river valleys surrounded by mountain ranges Greeks isolated from one another (8,000 to 10,000 population) Greek communities followed separate paths, developed their own ways of life Attached to their independence, fight one another to gain advantage; bitter rivalry Minoan Crete: By 2800 B.C, Bronze Age civilization established on Crete used metals (bronze) in weapons Named “Minoan” after Minos, a legendary king of Crete Rich and prosperous culture; far-ranging sea empire; probably largely commercial Contact with the more advanced civilization of Egypt Reached its height between 2000 and 1450 B.C. Suffered a sudden and catastrophic collapse around 1450 B.C Possible tsunami triggered by powerful volcanic eruption on the island of Thera (and/or) Destruction the result of invasion and pillage by mainland Greeks known as Mycenaeans Mycenaen Greece: Mycenae a center of Mycenaean Greek civilization; flourished between 1600-1100 B.C Mycenaean Greeks part of the Indo-European family of peoples who spread from their Central Asian location into southern and western Europe, India, and Iran One group entered the territory of Greece from the north around 1900 BC; gained control of the Greek mainland and develop a civilization Reached its height 1400-1200 BC; fortified palace-centers; gigantic stone walls Mycenaean civilization consisted of a number of powerful monarchies Formed a loose confederacy of independent states, with Mycenae the strongest Mycenaean king title of wanax ; next in importance: army officers, priests, bureaucrats Free citizenry included peasants, soldiers, and artisans; serfs and slaves lowest Warrior people; prided themselves on heroic deeds in battle Homer: Mycenaeans, led by King Agamemnon, sacked Troy around 1250 B.C. (?) Mycenae torched c. 1190 B.C.; new waves of Greek-speaking invaders moved in from north
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By 1100 B.C., Mycenaean culture ending; Greek world entered a new period of insecurity A Greek Dark Age: c. 1100-750 B.C. A period in which population declined and food production dropped Dark Age: difficult conditions; lack of knowledge about the period; language lost Not until 850 B.C. did farming revive Large numbers of Greeks left mainland; migrated across the Aegean Sea to various islands and especially to the southwestern shore of Asia Minor; strip of territory called Ionia Greece saw a revival of some trade and some economic activity besides agriculture Iron replaced bronze in the construction of weapons Farming tools made of iron helped reverse the decline in food production
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CHAPTER 4A - CHAPTER 4A Geography played an important role...

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