Lecture 12 and 13, Week7.pptx - GEOL 0870: The Planets...

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GEOL 0870: ThePlanets(Spring 2019)Jupiter
Notes on Exam 1We now have accumulated~35% of the gradedmaterial for the entiresemesterExam 1: Mean and Medianis ~80%Homework and quizsubmissions are decreasing– make sure to get thismaterial in!
DatesWeek #TopicReading/Notes1/7, 1/91History of Planetary ScienceCh. 4 & 51/14,1/162Tools of Planetary Science: Units, time,scientific method; Earth and Plate tectonicsCh. 61/23*3Earth and Plate tectonicsCh. 91/28, 1/304Earth’s MoonCh. 102/4, 2/65Mercury & VenusCh. 112/11, 2/136MarsCh. 112/18, 2/207Mars;Exam 1 (everything up to Mars)Ch. 122/25, 2/278Jupiter; SaturnCh. 123/4, 3/69Uranus & NeptuneCh. 143/18, 3/2010Pluton & CheronCh. 143/25, 3/2711Exam 2 (Jupiter to Pluto); TNOs: Asteroids,Comets, MeteoritesCh. 154/1, 4/312Formation of the Sun and Planetary SystemsCh. 164/8, 4/1013Extra Solar Planets & AstrobiologyCh. 274/15, 4/1714Mars missions: InSight and Mars 20204/2215Final Exam Week (exam time/location t.b.d.)*no class on 1/21 in observance of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Day
The Solar SystemTerrestrialPlanetsJovianPlanets
Recall: Jovian PlanetsLarge, gaseous, and low-density (“gas giants”)Dominantly hydrogen and heliumAll have moons that have characteristics similar to theinner terrestrial planetsAll have rings of dust and ice particlesJupiterSaturnUranusNeptune
Jupiter: General DataPeriod of Revolution:11.86 Earth yearsPeriod of Rotation:9 hrs 56 minsAxial Tilt:3.5°Mass:1.9 x 1027kg (318 Earth masses)Equatorial Diameter:139,822 km (~11 Earth diameter)Distance from Sun:5.20 AUAverage Density:1.3 g/cm3(Earth is 5.52 g/cm3)Albedo:44% (Earth is 30%)
Jupiter: HistoryJupiter (and Saturn) have similar histories:Both large enough to capture H and He from thesolar nebula because of their very large gravityRatio of H and He in Jupiter is similar to that in starsBoth most likely formed very soon after formation ofSun (as did other planets), as H and He would soonhave been swept into space by the solar windWe will talk about planetary formation later in thecourse
Jupiter: HistoryThe very large size of Jupiter stronglyaffected surrounding spaceMars is likely so small becauseJupiter “grabbed” nearby materialAsteroids between Mars andJupiter weren’t able to form aplanet because of Jupiter’s largegravity (now called the AsteroidBelt)Jupiter still acts as a “magnet” forasteroidsProbably saved Earth fromdestruction several times, but mayhave attracted some big rocks
Jupiter: General DataRotation:~10 hours (2.5 times faster than Earth)Contributes to its shape being about 6% wider nearthe equator than from pole to pole (142,984 kmequatorial, 133,708 km polar)Flattening due to rapid rate of spin and “fluidity” ofthe surface (mostly hydrogen gas)Diameter:Jupiter is almost as large as a gas planet canbeIf more material were to be added, it would becompressed by gravity such that the overall radiuswould only slightly increaseA star can be larger only because of its internal(nuclear) heat source that acts against gravity

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Term
Spring
Professor
SKILLING
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