Chapter 3 outline

Chapter 3 outline - Chapter 3: Minerals Building Blocks of...

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Chapter 3: Minerals – Building Blocks of Rocks h Summary What is a mineral? u Minerals, the building blocks of rocks, are naturally occurring, inorganic solids w/ specific crystal structures and chemical compositions that either are fixed or vary w/in a defined range. u A mineral is constructed of atoms, the small units of matter that combine in chemical reactions. u An atom is composed of a nucleus of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. u The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in its nucleus, and u atomic mass is the sum of the masses of its protons and neutrons How do atoms combine to form the crystal structures of minerals? u Chemical substances react w/ one another to form compounds either by gaining or losing electrons to become ions or by sharing electrons. u The ions in a chemical compound are held together by ionic bonds, which form by electrostatic attraction between position ions (cations) and negative ions (anions). u Atoms that share electrons to form a compound are held together by covalent bonds. u When a mineral crystallizes, atoms or ions come together in the proper proportions to form a crystal structure, which is an orderly 3D geometric array in which the basic arrangement is repeated in all directions What are the major rock-forming minerals? u Silicates, the most abundant minerals in earth’s crust, are crystal structures built of silicate tetrahedral linked in various ways. u Tetrahedral may be u isolate (olivines) or in u single chains (pyroxenes), u double chains (amphiboles), u sheets (mica) or u frameworks (feldspars). u Carbonate minerals are made of carbonate ions bonded to calcium or magnesium or both. u
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course GLG 111 taught by Professor Kuentz during the Fall '05 term at Miami University.

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Chapter 3 outline - Chapter 3: Minerals Building Blocks of...

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