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GLG244-FinalExamStudy

GLG244-FinalExamStudy - GLG244.A Study Guide Chapter 6...

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GLG244.A Study Guide Spring 2006 Chapter 6: Water, p. 106-129 Definitions to Know: Molecule: A group of atoms held together by chemical bonds Heat Capacity: A measure of the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1degrees Celsius different substances have different heat capacities and it is measured by calorie/gram Hydrogen Bond: Occurs when a hydrogen atom in one water molecule is attracted to the oxygen atom of an adjacent water molecule - These bonds are responsible for cohesion and adhesion, the properties of water that cause surface tension and wetting Cohesion: Allowing individual water molecules to stick together Adhesion: The tendency of water to stick to other materials, allows water to adhere to solids, that is, to make tem wet Density: The mass per unit of volume Density Curve: Shows the relationship between the temperate or salinity of a substance and its density. Temperature: An objects response to an input (or removal) of heat Heat: Energy produced by the random vibration of atoms or molecules Melting: Freezing: Freezing Point: The bond angle between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms in water expands from about 105degrees to slightly more than 109degrees. Sensible Heat Loss: The detectable decrease in heat Thermostatic Properties: Those properties that act to moderate changes in temperature Thermal Inertia: The tendency of a substance to resist change in temperature with the gain or loss of heat energy Latent Heat of Vaporization: The amount of energy required to break hydrogen bonds - The latent heat of Fusion is 80 calories per gram, meanwhile the latent heat of vaporization is 540 calories per gram this is because only a small percentage os hydrogen bonds are broken when ice melts, but when it is vaporized or evaporates all of the hydrogen bonds need to be broken Halocline: The zone of rapid change in salinity that separates surface waters from deep water 1
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GLG244.A Study Guide Spring 2006 Pycnocline: A layer within the water column where water density changes rapidly with depth (middle dividing layer between the 3 different water columns Thermocline: The layer of water in which temperatures and density change rapidly Temperate regions have a seasonal thermocline and polar regions have none thermocline “grows” during the summer and “decays” during the winter Deep Zone: Lies below the pycnocline at depths below 1,000 meters in mid-latitudes (40S- 40N) there is little additional change in water density with increasing depth though this zone, which occupies about 80% of all ocean water Oxygen minimum layer: 150-1500 meters below the surface and coincides with the pycnolince Mixing layer or Surface Zone: It is the upper layer of the ocean. - Temperature and salinity are relatively constant with depth in the surface zone because of the action of waves and currents. The surface zone consists of water in contact with the atmosphere and exposed to sunlight - It contains the ocean’s least dense water, only about 2% of total ocean volume Scattering:
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