GLG244-FinalExamStudy - GLG244.A Study Guide Chapter 6:...

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GLG244.A Study Guide Spring 2006 Chapter 6: Water, p. 106-129 Definitions to Know: Molecule: A group of atoms held together by chemical bonds Heat Capacity: A measure of the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1degrees Celsius different substances have different heat capacities and it is measured by calorie/gram Hydrogen Bond: Occurs when a hydrogen atom in one water molecule is attracted to the oxygen atom of an adjacent water molecule - These bonds are responsible for cohesion and adhesion, the properties of water that cause surface tension and wetting Cohesion: Allowing individual water molecules to stick together Adhesion: The tendency of water to stick to other materials, allows water to adhere to solids, that is, to make tem wet Density: The mass per unit of volume Density Curve: Shows the relationship between the temperate or salinity of a substance and its density. Temperature: An objects response to an input (or removal) of heat Heat: Energy produced by the random vibration of atoms or molecules Melting: Freezing: Freezing Point: The bond angle between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms in water expands from about 105degrees to slightly more than 109degrees. Sensible Heat Loss: The detectable decrease in heat Thermostatic Properties: Those properties that act to moderate changes in temperature Thermal Inertia: The tendency of a substance to resist change in temperature with the gain or loss of heat energy Latent Heat of Vaporization: The amount of energy required to break hydrogen bonds - The latent heat of Fusion is 80 calories per gram, meanwhile the latent heat of vaporization is 540 calories per gram this is because only a small percentage os hydrogen bonds are broken when ice melts, but when it is vaporized or evaporates all of the hydrogen bonds need to be broken Halocline: The zone of rapid change in salinity that separates surface waters from deep water 1
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GLG244.A Study Guide Spring 2006 Pycnocline: A layer within the water column where water density changes rapidly with depth (middle dividing layer between the 3 different water columns Thermocline: The layer of water in which temperatures and density change rapidly Temperate regions have a seasonal thermocline and polar regions have none thermocline “grows” during the summer and “decays” during the winter Deep Zone: Lies below the pycnocline at depths below 1,000 meters in mid-latitudes (40S- 40N) there is little additional change in water density with increasing depth though this zone, which occupies about 80% of all ocean water Oxygen minimum layer: 150-1500 meters below the surface and coincides with the pycnolince Mixing layer or Surface Zone: It is the upper layer of the ocean. -
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This test prep was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course GLG 244 taught by Professor Sikorski during the Spring '05 term at Miami University.

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GLG244-FinalExamStudy - GLG244.A Study Guide Chapter 6:...

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