clar120midterm2 - Egypt Located on the banks of the Nile...

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Egypt Located on the banks of the Nile River-Cities in the flood plane lower than surroundings left no ruins-pyramids survived because they were on higher levels- so only know information about burials Known for pyramids, carved temples, and pharophic tombs History divided by dynasties and grouped due to political and cultural issues Two settlements-Upper and Lower Egypt that unified in 3050 Nile resources o Communication o Transportation o Economics o Constant provider – unlike Mesopotamia Ka o Communicates through cult statues o A king’s spirit before birth, during life, and after death o Cults of kings always maintained o The Opening of the Mouth ceremony gives life to the cult statues Predynastic o 4 th millennium 3050-2675 o 1 st and 2 nd dynasties o Organization of state, religious and funerary beliefs, and art and architectural forms o Huge cementaries o Social and political formations, including writing techniques o Pottery o Nile Connections Trade Communications Manufactured goods o Palettes Palette of Narmer Military weapon Serekh-symbol of kingship Found in the Aha Tombs along with elite cemeteries, pottery and a sense of the burial and everyday customs Found in Hiernakonpolis, the capitol of Upper Egypt o Mastaba Tombs Bodies wrapped in linens and put in sunken pits Mudbrick house with rooms with pits inside Bodies protected by the mound which tomb was located Abydos Began with king Aha – Narmer’s successor – and was buried with servants and craftsmen with tools for protection and assistance in the afterlife
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Houselike façade filled with separate rooms with bodies and possessions. Included a funerary enclousure Saqqara No funerary enclousures Most likely burial place for the elite or royals Royal cemeteries for the 1 st and 2 nd dynasties Home of the Djoser Pyramid Complex o Djoser’s Step Pyramid Built for pharoh Djoser in the 3 rd dynasty Transition between mastaba tombs and the smooth pyramids Palace-life façade, fortification wall, Julibee Court and a cult statue Works come from all over Egypt – craft specialization Built by volunteers not slaves – slaves worked for pharoh to pay off debts o Civic Art Mortuary cults brings offerings to the dead center Liturgical/hieratic purpose o Egypt is the largest and most powerful state, imperialistic- out for resources and stability and to ensure the maintenance of order in their own society Old Kingdom o 3 rd millennium 2675-2190 o 3 rd , 4 th , 5 th , and 6 th dynasties o Writing Hieroglyphs Hieratic Demotic o Mummification process is steorotypical o Economic change o Pyramid Complexes Pyramids of Giza Emergence of the smooth pyramid – 4 th dynasty Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure Contains information of old societies in the reliefs Each pyramid has different entrances and tunnels for protection during the afterlife
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clar120midterm2 - Egypt Located on the banks of the Nile...

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