clar120midterm

clar120midterm - Book Outline Ancient Cities Midterm Spring...

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Unformatted text preview: Book Outline Ancient Cities Midterm Spring 2008 Neolithic Towns and villages in the Near East Cities begin in the fourth millennium BC in SW Asia Developed for towns and villages for 5000 years • Climate and Geography i. Warmer, Moister – change in human social and economic interaction ii. 4 Climate Zones 1. Lowlands 2. Uplands 3. Mountains 4. Deserts iii. Mesopotamia 1. Between Tigris and Euphrates 2. Farmers depends on irrigation from rivers not rainfall iv. Mountains 1. Difficult Terrains 2. No Social or Economic unification 3. Independent people v. Uplands – or Fertile Crescent 1. Rich in natural resources 2. Begins domestication of animals 3. Agriculture present during cooler months 4. Lived in natural shelters 5. Crafted tools vi. Period required skills to survive that developed over time vii. Neolithic Revolution 1. Plant cultivation 2. Later Animal domestication 3. Less moving – controlled food source • Development of Chiefdoms and States i. Centralized political systems ii. Chiefdom – political system with one ruler over two or more groups with a hierarchy iii. Not all had hierarchy in the beginning but it soon prevailed iv. Caused by food management (wealth/power) and religion • Jericho (Palestine) i. One of the earliest permanent settlements – 9000 BC ii. Reliable source of water iii. Pre-Pottery Neolithic Phase A 1. House and Fortified Wall 2. Protection against human and natural (ex. Floods) enemies 3. Organized society of hunters and gatherers 4. Traded with far-off lands iv. Pre-Pottery Neolithic Phase B 1. Rectangular houses instead of round houses made of mud- brick 2. Religious Practices a. Shrines and Figurines b. Represented Deities c. Ancestor Worship 3. Economy a. Growing agriculture culture b. Importance of “secondary” animal byproducts i. Milk ii. Skin iii. Transportation c. Increase of population, artisans, and a complexity of social organization • Cayonu (Turkey) – 8250-5000 BC i. Pottery Neolithic ii. No fortification wall iii. Variety of buildings and open spaces iv. Subphases 1. Subphases 1-5 contained 4 communal buildings a. Large round structure b. Large “Flagstone Building” c. “Skull Building” – contains human skeletons d. Terrazzo Building i. Polished cobbles, pink limestone, and white stones decorated the floor 2. Subphases 3-5 contained cult centers 3. Subphase 1 a. Round buildings b. Made of branches and mud 4. Subphase 2 – Grill Plan subphase a. Rectangular houses with many parallel stone wall foundations (looks like a grill) b. 3 parts – living area, enclosed courtyard, and a small storage area 5. Subphase 3 – Channeled Building subphase a. Filled stone wall foundations b. 2 rows of stones set into clay floor c. Houses more scattered as town grew – creating Plaza area 6. Subphase 4 – Cobble-paved Building subphase a. Protected from groundwater by a cobble fill b. Plaza continues to grow 7. Subphase 5 – Cell Building subphase a. Larger houses b. Abandoned and filled in old houses...
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course CLAR 120 taught by Professor Haggis during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

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clar120midterm - Book Outline Ancient Cities Midterm Spring...

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