psych study sheet 1

psych study sheet 1 - psych study sheet 1 10:15:00 PM...

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psych study sheet 1 03/03/2008 22:15:00 Essentialism- the idea that the only good scientific theories are those that give  ultimate explanations of phenomena in terms of their underlying essences or essential  properties A theory that gives less than an ultimate explanation is useless Need to have stable definitions for terms Problem: there are no “ultimates” in science Operationism- idea that concepts in scientific theories must in some way be  grounded in, or linked to, observable events that can be measured Operational definition removes concept from the feelings and intuitions of a  particular individual and allows it to be tested by anyone turing test- operational test test whether or not computers can think based on ability to carry on an  intelligent convo subject reads convo and asked to decide which participant is the computer controlled for irrelevant external characteristics of the thinking device shows necessity of operational definitions  case studies: good and bad good- indicates which variables deserve more intense study bad- o not useful at later stages of investigation because they cant be used as  confirming/disconfirming evidence in test of theory o lack comparative info necessary to rule out alternative explanations
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vividness effect- when faced with a problem solving or decision making situation,  people retrieve from memory the infor that seems relevant most vivid memories: personal testimony that something has occurred or that  something is true o this overshadows other information of higher reliability James Randi- magician who exposed frauds Proves how easy it is to use testimonial evidence for false claims Features that define science: Scientific empiricism o Rely on observations o Systematic: results reveal something about underlying nature of world Replication and peer review o Replicated, criticized, extended to community Empirically solvable problems o Testable theory (empirically testable) o Must have specific implications for observable events in natural world important facts about perception: limited selective requires memory
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not entirely veridical takes time involves active organization or sensory info focuses on change instead of steady-state info corresponds more to the distal stimulus than to the proximal stimulus Blind sight- Weiskrantz Objective was to explain behavior No conscious or unconscious mental processes Patient with lesion on his visual system but wasn’t actually blind
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