a211101.pdf - AGARD-CP-438 U 0D No.438 AGARD CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS PIZ Fluid Dynamics of Three-Dimensional Turbulent Shear Flows and Transition SJUN

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Unformatted text preview: AGARD-CP-438 U 0D No.438 AGARD CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS PIZ Fluid Dynamics of Three-Dimensional Turbulent Shear Flows and Transition SJUN DTIC ELECTE 26 1989 -. TFSAE~ o DISTRIBUTION AND AVAILABILITY ON BACK COVER A lA AGARD-CP-438 NORTH ATLANTIC" TREATY ORGANIZATION ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (ORGANISATION DU TRAITE DE LATLANTIQUE NORD) AGARD Conference Proceedings No.438 FLUID DYNAMICS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL TURBULENT SHEAR FLOWS AND TRANSITION OTIC p EIN Accesion For d NT'S GiC c CTRA&I TAB Jut 5tf'CdI.,'i By D t'ibbtbo', Avd'ibifity Codes Dist - =...,.. a..,. ,.,ml i ii ill ., i • I ill ,; SAviil jodjo'r o uca III Papers presented and discussions heid ,it tiw Symposium of the Fluid Dynamics Panel in 4eqme, Turkey, 3-6 October 1988. p THE MISSION OF AGARD According to its (harter, the mission of AGARD is to bring together the leading personalities of the NATO nations in the fields of science and tcchnoli g relating to aerospace for the following purposes: - Recornmnndin- effective was for the member nations to use their research and development capabilities for the common benefit of the NATO community; - Providing scientific and technical advice and assistance to the Military Committee in the field of aerospace research and dexclopmcnt (with particular regard to its military application); - Continuously stimulating advances in the aerospace sciences relevant to strengthening the common defence posture; - Improving tile co-operation aniong member nations in aerospace research and development; - Exchange of scientific and technical information; - Providing as.,istance to member nati,)ns for the purpose of increasing their scientific and technical potential; - Rendering scientific and technical assistance, as requested, to other NATO bodies and to member nations in connection with research and development problems in the aerospace field. The highest authority within AGARD is the National Delegates Board consisting of officially appointed senior representatives from each member nation. The mission ol AGARD is carried out through the Panels which are composed of experts appointed by the National Delegates. the Consultant .nd Exchange Programme and the Aerospace Applications Studies Programme. The results of AGARD work are reported to the member nations and the NATO Authorities through the AGARD series of puflications of which this is one. Participation in AGARD activities is by invitation only and is normally limited to citizens of the NATO nations. The content of this publication has been reproduced directly from material supplied by AGARD or the authors. Published April 1989 Copyright © AGARD 1989 All Rights Reserved ISBN 92-835-0502-6 Printed by Specialised Printing Services Limited 40 Chigwell Lane, Loughton, Essex IGIO 3TZ FOREW ORD The performance requirements of modern aircraft have intensified our need to understand and predict the characteristics of three dimensional shear flows, particularly attached and separated boundary layers. These characteristics differ in certain essentials from those of two dimensional flow, but hitherto our predictive methods for three dimensional flos have been simple extensions of those developed for two dimensional flows and involve the same empiricisms. However, it has become increasingly clear that we need additional inputs to reflect the special features of three dimensional flows if our prediction methods are to achieve the required accuracy. These special features stem from the presence of cross flows and streamwise vorticitv in three dimensional flows as well as spanwise variations of initial conditions. These have important effects on the transition process and on the growth, decay and stability of turbulence, with consequent effects on the characteristics of turbulent shear flows. The increasing interest in the control of turbulence structures to reduce skin friction needs to be widened to include the three dimensional factors. The aims of the Symposium were to determine the trends and achievements of current research activities in thesc areas and to highlight the problems on which future research should be focussed. Modern computing facilities and techniques have made it possible to explain the stability characteristics of laminar flow,s by direct solution of the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations, in addition to the more classical analytical approach of exploring the response to small perturbations. In recent years there has been increasing work along these lines, revealing important features of the transition process. The Symposium included seven sessions devoted to the topic of transition, and these sessions well representcd the turrent state ot tic art. The characteristics ot three dimensiona turbulent shear ftows were dealt with in five sessions, a reflection of the fact that here much more experimental work is needed, and the effort devoted to this difficult topic his not yet reached the level required. However, the Symposium has served to define the main areas calling for future research, and it should be very helpful in stimulating the work needed. Face aux sp&ifications des nouveaux adronefs nous avons de plus en plus besoin de comprendre et de prdvoir les caractdristiques des coulements de cisaillement tridimensionnels et des couches limites attachdes et ddcollkes en particulier. Bien que ces caractdristiques pr~sentent certaines diff&ences fondamentales par rapport celles des 6coulements bidimensionnels, les mrthodes jusqu'ici utilisdes pour leur prdvision ont consist6 en des simples extensions de celles ddveloppees pour les 6coulements bidimensionnels, avec les mmes empirismes. Or, il est de plus en plus 6vident que des 6l6ments complkmentaires. qui tiennent compte des caractdristiques spdcifiques des 6coulements tridimensionnels, sont ndcessaires pour atteindre le niveau de precision requis dans nos mdthodes de prevision. Ces caractdristiques sp&ifiques ont pour origine la presence d'6coulements transversaux et de tourbillons dans le sens du flux dans les 6coulements tridimensionnels, ainsi que des variations des conditions initiales dans le sens transversal. Ces phdnom~ncs ont des consequences importantes sur 1"Nvolution de la transition et sur l'volution de I'amortissement et la stabilitd des tourbillons; lesquelles influent i leur tour sur les caractdristiques des &coulements de cisaillement turbulents. A I'heure actuelle, la communaut6 scientifique manifeste de plus en plus d'int& t dans le contr6le des structures Aturbulence pour rduire les frottements de plan, mais ce domaine doit 6tre dlargi pour inclure les aspects tridimensionnels. Le symposium a eu pour objectif d'identifier les tendances gdndrales et les progr{s ralisds par les recherches en cours dans ces domaines et de mettre en 6vidence les probl{mes qui doivent tre abordds par les travaux de recherche futurs. Les moyens et les techniques informatiques d'aujourd'hui k rm,. ttent d'explorer les caractdristiques de la stabilit6 des 6coulements laminaires par la resolution directe des 6quations Na, Stokes instationnaires, en plus de I'approche analytique, qui consiste 6tudier la rdponse h des petites perturbations. De plus en plus d'6tudes ont &6 consacrees a ces questions au cours des dernii:re anndes, avec pour rdsultat la ddcouverte de plusleurs caractdristiques importantes du processus de transition. Le symposium comprend sept sessions consacres a la transition, qui refletent bien N'ctat de l'art dans cc domaine. Les caractdristiques des coulements de cisaillement tridimensionnels turbulents sont traitdes en cinq sessions ce qui ddmontre la necessite de porter les efforts sur les travaux exp&imentaux et indique que les efforts consacrds i cette question difficile n'ont pas encore atteint Ie niveau souhaite. Ndanmoins, le symposium a servi h ddfinir les principales voies de recherche futures, et favorisera sans doute le ddclenchement des travaux en question. AGARD FLUID DYNAMICS PANEL Chairman: Mr D.H.Peckham Superintendent AE2 Division Royal Aerospace Establishment R141 Building Far:buo ugh. Hants G U 14 6TD United Kingdom Deputy Chairman: D~r W.J.McCroskey Senior Staff Scientist US Amy Aero Flightdynamics Directorate (AVSCOM) Ames Research Center N258-1I Moffett Field. CA 94305 United States PROGRAMME COMMITI'EE Professor A.D.Youngt (Co-Chairman) Dept. of Aeronautical Eng~ineering Queen Marv College Mile End Road London ElI 4NS. UK Professor E.Reshotko (Co-Chairman) Dept. of Mech. & Aerospace Engineering Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio 44106. USA Professor K.Gersten (Co-Chairman) Institut fur Thermo und Fluiddynamik Ruhr - Urnivcrsitat Bochum Postfach 18 2 1 4 D-4630 Bochum 1, FRG Professor D)r Ir. JI,. van Ingen Department of Aerospace Engineering Delft University of Technology Klulverwcg, I. Netherlands Professor Dr T.Ytrehus Institute of Mechanics The UniversitN of Trondheim N-7034 Trondheim-NTH-. Norway Professor Dr C.Cirav Aeronautical Eng. Department Middle East Technical University ln6nd Bulvari Ankara. Turkey Professor A.Roshko (MS 105-50) Dept. of Aeronautics California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 911 25. USA M. l'Ing. en Chef B.Masure SICAN/'BA 26 Boulevard Victor 75996 Paris Arm~es, France Professor M.Onorato Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aeronautica c Politeenico di Torino C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24 10 129 Torino, Italy PANEL EXECUTIVE Mail from Europe Mail fron, US and Canada: Mr M.C.Fischer AGARD/OTAN 7 rue Ancelle 92200 Neuilly sur Seine, France Tel. (1) 4738 5775 - Telex 610176 (France) Telefax (1) 4738-5799 AGARD/NATO Attn: FDP APO New York 09777 CONTENTS Page FOREWORD iii FLUID DYNAMIWS PANEL/PROGRAMME COMMITFEE iv Reference SESSION I - INVITED PAPER Chairman: E.Reshotko STABILITY AND TRANSITION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BOUNDARY LAYERS by W.S.Saric and H.L.Reed I SESSION i - LEADING EDGE EFFECTS ON TRANSITION Chairman: E.Reshotko EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ATTACHMENT-LINE TRANSITION IN LOW-SPEED HIGH-LIFT WIND-TUNNEL TESTING by B.C.Hardy 2 STABILITY OF A SUPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYER ALONG A SWEPT LEADING EDGE by M.R.Malik and l.E.Beckwith 3 TRANSITION PAR CONTAMINATION DE BORD D'ATTAQUE EN ECOULEMENT HYPERSONIQUE par J.L. Da Costa, D.Aymer de la Chevalerie et T.Alziary de Roquefort 4 DIRECT NUMERICAL STUDY OF LEADING-EDGE CONTAMINATION by P.R.Spalart SESSION III - EFFECTS OF CROSS FLOW AND LONGITUDINAL VORTICES ON TRANSITION Chairman: J.L. van Ingen ETUDE DE LA TRANSITION ET DE LA CONTAMINATION DE BORD D'ATTAQUE SUR AILES EN FLECHE par D.Arnal et J.C.Juillen 6 NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF LONGITUDINAL VORTICES ON THE ONSET OF TRANSITION IN A FLAT PLATE BOUNDARY LAYER by U.Konzelmann, U.Rist and H.Fasel 7 GORTLER INSTABILITY ON AN AEROFOIL: COMPARISON OF MARCHING SOLUTION WITH EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS by V.Kalburgi, S.M.Mangalam and J.R.Dagenhart 8 THREE-DIMENSIONAL BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION ON A CONCAVE SURFACE by G.Leoutsakos and R.I.Crane 9 CURVATURE EFFECTS ON STABILITY OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYERS by F.S.Collier, Jr and M.R.Malik 10 THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL VORTEX SHEET STRUCTURE ON DELTA WINGS by M.V.Lowson II SESSION IV - 3-DIMENSIONAL TRANSITION - EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES Chairman: M.Onorato SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF SEPARATION AND TRANSITION IN SURFACE SHEAR LAYERS by S.M.Mangalam, J.P.Stack, and W.G.Sewali 12 Reference EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF INSTABILITY MODES IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL BOUNDARY LAYER by B.Miller and H.Bippes 13 SESSION V - 3-DIMENSIONAL TRANSITION - NUMERICAL STUDIES Chairman: K.Gersten BIFURCATIONS IN POISEUILLE FLOW AND WALL TURBULENCE by JJimenez 14 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY STABILITY ANALYSIS APPLIED TO THE DFVLR TRANSITION SWEPT-PLATE EXPERIMENT by T.M.Fischer and U.Dallmann 15 NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TRANSITION IN 3D BOUNDARY LAYERS by F.Meyer and L.Kleiser 16 A THREE DIMENSIONAL LINEAR STABILITY APPROACH TO TRANSITION ON WINGS AT INCIDENCE by T.Cebeci, H.H.Chen and D.Arnal 17 SESSION VI - TRANSITION IN INTERNAL OR COMPLEX FLOWS Chairman: C.Ciray NUMERICALLY DETERMINED TRANSITION IN SEPARATED INTERNAL FLOW by J.H.Gerrard 18 RESOLUTION NUMERIQUE D'ECOULEMENTS TRIDIMENSIONNELS INSTATIONNAIRES: APPLICATION A DES PROBLEMES D'INSTABILITE par J.B.Cazalbou, P.Chassaing et H.Ha Minh 19 Paper 20 withdrawn SESSION VII - TURBULENT SHEAR FLOWS - EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES I Chairman: B.Masure A STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE OF HIGHLY SWEPT SHOCK WAVE TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER INTERACTIONS by S.M.Bogdonoff 21 SESSION VIII - INVITED PAPER Chairman: B.Masure CONTROLE ET MODIFICATION DE LA TURBULENCE par J.Cousteix, E.Coustols et D.Arnal 22 SESSION IX - TURBULENT SHEAR FLOWS - EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES 11 Chairman: Y.Ytrehus TURBULENCE MANAGEMENT - APPLICATION ASPECTS by E.H.Hirschel, P.Thiede and F.Monnoyer 23 TRAILING-EDGE SWEEP AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL VORTEX INTERACTIONS IN JETS AND MIXING LAYERS by V.Kibens, R.W.Wlezien, F.W.Roos and J.T.Kegelman 24 Reference SESSION X - INVITED PAPER Chairman: A.Roshko A EUROPEAN COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATION OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL TURBULENT SHEAR LAYERS OF A SWEPT WING by B. van den Berg 25 SESSION XI - INVITED PAPER Chairman: A.Roshko TURBULENCE MODELLING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHEAR FLOWS by B.E.Launder 26 SESSION XII - TURBULENT SHEAR FLOWS - NUMERICAL STUDIES Chairman: A. Roshko SIMULATIONS NUMERIQUES D'ECOULEMENTS TURBULENTS DE CANAL PLAN par K.Dang et V.Deschamps 27 SIMULATION NUMERIQUE DES STRUCTURES COHERENTES DANS UNE COUCHE DE MELANGE INCOMPRESSIBLE par M.Lesieur, P.Compte, X.Normand et Y.Fouillet 28 TECHNICAL EVALUATORS' REMARKS/ROUND TABLE DISCUSSION RTD I-1 STABILITY AND TRANSITION OF TIIREE-DIMENSIONAL BOUNDARY LAYERS William S. Saric and Helen L. Reed Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 USA SUMMARY The most recent efforts on the stability and transition of three-dimensional flows are reviewed. These include flows over swept wings, rotating disks, and attachment lines. The generic similarities of their stability bcha%ior is discussed. It is shown that the breakdown process is very complex, often leading to contradictory results. Particular attention is paid to opposing observations of stationary and traveling wave disturbances. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Basic Ideas The process of the breakdown of a bounded laminar flow is three dimensional and may be described by the foilowing simplified discussion. Disturbances in the freestream, such as sound or vorticity, enter the boundary layer as steady and/or unsteady fluctuations of the basic state. This part of the process is called receptivity (Morkovin 1969, fI9 7 7 ) and although it is still not well understood, it provides the vital initial conditions of amplitude, frequency, and phase for the breakdown of laminar flow. Initially these disturbances may be too small to measure, and they are observed only after the onset of an instability. The type of instability that occurs depends on Reynolds number, wall curvature, sweep, roughness, and initial conditions. The initial growth of these disturbances is described by linear stability theory. This growth is weak, occurs over a viscous time scale (or long length), and can be modulated by pressure gradients, mass flow, temperature gradients, etc. As the amplitude grows, three-dimensional and noitlinear interactions occur in the form of secondary instabilities. Disturbance growth is very rapid in this case (now over a convective time scale), and breakdown to turbulence occurs. When considering boundary-layer flows it is important to emphasize that the understanding of the transition process will only come from the consideration of three-dimensional effects in the stability process even though the basic state may be one dimensional and the primary instability may be two dimensional. Moreover, the nature of transition is critically tied to the upstream initial conditions. The important features of this problem for one- and two-dimensional basic states have been recently reviewed by Tani (1981), Reshotko (1976, 1984a,b), Mack (1984), Arnal (1984), Herbert (1985, 1988), Singer ct al. (1986, 1987), and Saic (1985a,b, 1986). A renewed interest in problems of stability and transio iii swcpt-witg flou, l,,1, developed as a result of an emphasis on the design of energy efficient airfoils; see, for example, the early reprts of Pfenninger (1961, 1977a,b), Heftier & Bushnell (1977), Bushnell & Tuttle (1979), and Runyan & George-Falvy (1979) and the more recent reports of Ecklund & Williams (1981), Montoya et at. (1981), Harvey & Pride (1982), Pearce (1982a,b), Pearce et al. (1982), Tuttle & Maddalon (1982), Boeing Commercial Airplane Company (1982, 1984), Etchberger (1983), Hanks et al. (1983), Wagner & Fischer (1983, 1984), Douglas Aircraft Company (1984), Holmes (1984), Runyan al. (1984), Wagner et al. '19 ,. Rohhiv! er al. (1085), Braslow & Fischer (1985), Harvey et al. (1985), Hefner (1985), Holmes et al. (1985). Meyer & Jennett (1985), Thomas (1985), Waggoner et al. Ct (1985), Wagner et al. (1985), Redeker et al. (1986), Pfenninger et al. (1986, 1987, 1988), Goradia et al. (1987), Harvey (1987), and Korner et al. (1987), and Pfenninger & Vemuru (1988). These flows are three dimensional in nature and are, of course, subject to three-dimensional instabilities. As recent symposia and conferences have indicated, there is far more current interest in these problems than ever before. Therefore, the present paper concentrates on work in three-dimensional boundary layers and update the status of the new work in this area. 1.2 Three-Dimensional Boundary Layers A fully three-dimensional (3-D) boundary-layer flow exhibits instability behavior quite that is different from that of the corresponding two-dimensional (2-D) flow. Of particular interest are the stability characteristics of these 3-D flows where inviscid criteria may produce a stronger instability than the usual Tollmien-Schlichting waves. Examples of 3-D flows of practical interest include swept wings, rotating cones, comers, inlets, and rotating disks. It appears that these flows exhibit a rich variety of stability behavior that is generic to 3-D boundary layers. A consistent characteristic of the instabilities is the presence of streamwise vorticity within the shear layer. This streamwise structure produces a strong spanwise modulation of the basic state that gives rise to secondary instabilities. The reader should also see Kohama (1987a,b), who makes manv of the same points in his review of the subject. . . .. IL The tlov. over a ss ,-pt Wing is a coninon of instabilities that lead to transition- c xanipIc, of a 3-1) tndary layer. This [ type of 3-D flow issusceptible to four They are leading-edge instability and contamination, streamwise instability, cctanfugal instability, arid crossflow instabilitv. Leading-edge instability and contamination occurs along the attachment line and is associated either with a hasic i ,-;ihlity of the attachment-line fow or with turbulent disturbances that propagate along the wing leading edge (Pfenninger 1963a, Poll 1979, 1984, 1985, lall etal. 1984, 1lall & Malik 1086). Streamwise instability is associated with the chordwise component of flow and is quite similar to processes in 2-1) flows, where Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves generally develop (Mack 1984). This usually occurs in zero or mild positive pressure-gradient regions on a wing. Centrifugal instabilities occur in the shear flow over a concave surface arid appear in the form of G;rtler vortices (Floryan & Saric 1982; flall 1983). However, Hall 1985) has conclusively shown that the G6rtler vortex instability is unimportant in the concave region of swept wings when the angle of sweep is large compared to Re la. This situation is easily realized in wings of moderate sweep and thus one Aould expect crossflow or T-S breakdown of the laminar flow. The excellent review papers of Mack (1984), Aral (1984, 1986). and Poll (1984) contain summaries of the earlier work. Mack ( 1984( is a monograph...
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