Chapter 3.4.Economic Imperialism•Objectives of Economic Imperialism•Colonization of Africa•Industrialization of Japan (Meiji Restoration)
New ImperialismCompared to the first wave of colonialism (Age of Discovery), the second wave ofimperialism is often called “New Imperialism” or “Economic Imperialism”, and ismotivated byindustrial and capitalist expansion.The search forcheap raw industrial material(e.g. coal, iron, rubber)–thus, the targetswere resource-rich regions;The search foroutput markets(places that would buy excess industrial products at highprices)–thus, the targets werepopulated regions with developed civilization(maindifference between the two waves of colonialism).Even though Latin American colonies gained political independence in the 1820s-1830s,they remained economically backward and wereexploited by European and Americancapitals(“Economic Imperialism”).Competition between imperial powers escalated as the Second IndustrialRevolution began in the 1860s, and contributed to the First World War (1914-1918CE).
World Map (1900) at the height of European ImperialismRussian EmpireFrenchAfricaFrenchIndochinaFrenchMadagascarBritishAfricaBritishAfricaBritishAustraliaBritish RajBritish CanadaJapanese EmpireSouth AfricaGibraltarSuez CanalMumbaiSingapoleHong Kong
Objectives of New ImperialismEconomic motivations:To gain access to raw industrial material. For example, France colonized theIndochina Peninsula (Indochine Française) which was one of themain exporterof rubber(rubber planation).To sell excess industrial products. Many oriental civilizations were comparativelyisolated in the 19thcentury, and were “forced open” by European powers inorder to gain access to their internal markets. For example:The Opium Wars(1840, 1860)–Britain v. China, Britain and France v. China;Matthew Perry’s Expedition(“Black Ship”, 1853) –U.S. v. Japan;Expedition to Korea (1871)–U.S. v. Korea; (1876)–Japan v. Korea;To gainstrategic holdingsfor global trade. Britain heldthe most important seaand ocean portsoutside Europe–e.g. the Suez Canal, Hong Kong, Singapore,and Mumbai. It also fought the Dutch over control of South Africa, and theSpanish over control of Gibraltar.
Objectives of New Imperialism“White Men’s Burden”British John Bull and American Uncle Sam carrying colored races to civilization
Objectives of New ImperialismPolitical and philosophical motivation–Social Darwinism:Social Darwinism is the extension of Darwinism in social science.Darwinism argued that the process ofevolutionis the process of“natural selection” (“survival of the fittest”). As Europeindustrialized, there is a sense thatEuropean culture wassuperior and the fittest of all civilizations–thus it embodied themost evolvedform of civilization (racial superiority).