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Medical Terminology Notebook - Amanda Heywood KIN1052...

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Amanda Heywood KIN1052 October 11, 2007 Medical Terminology Notebook 1. Amyloid: any of a group of chemically diverse proteins that appears microscopically homogeneous but is composed of linear nonbranching aggregated fibrils arranged n sheets when seen under the electron microscope; it stains dark brown with iodine, produces a characteristic green color in polarized light after staining with Congo red, is metachromatic with either methyl violet or crystal violet, and fluoresces yellow after thioflavine T staining; amyloid occurs characteristically as pathologic extracellular deposits, especially in association with reticuloendothelial tissue; the chemical nature of the proteinaceous fibrils is dependent upon the underlying disease process. (pg 66) Stedman’s 2. Amyloidosis: a disease characterized by extracellular accumulation of amyloid in various organs and tissues of the body; may be primary or secondary. (pg 66) Stedman’s 3. Aortic Stenosis: pathologic narrowing of the aortic valve orifice, blocking blood flow from the left ventricle, thus decreasing cardiac input. (pg 99) Stedman’s 4. Arrhythmia: loss of rhythm, denoting especially an irregularity of the heartbeat. Antonym: dysrhythmia (pg 111) Stedman’s 5. Asthenopia: subjective symptoms of ocular fatigue discomfort, lacrimation, and headaches arising from use of the eyes. Also known as eyestrain. (pg 128) Stedman’s 6. Atherosclerosis: arteriosclerosis characterized by irregularly distributed lipid deposits in the intima of large and medium arteries; such deposits provoke fibrosis and calcification. Atherosclerosis is set in motion when cells lining the arteries are damaged as a result of high blood pressure, smoking, toxic, substances in the environment, and other agents. Plaques develop when low density lipoproteins accumulate at the site of arterial damage and platelets act to form a fibrous cap over this fatty core. Deposits impede or eventually shut off blood flow. (pg 131) Stedman’s 7. Athlete’s heart: nonpathologic enlarged heart in athletes reflecting specific adaptation to prolonged training. Manifestations in response to
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resistance training are thickened left ventricular wall and concentric hypertrophy, and in response to endurance training are enlarged left ventricular cavity and eccentric hypertrophy. (pg 131) Stedman’s 8. Athletic amenorrhea: irregularities in the menstrual cycle presenting as either oligomenorrhea (35-90 days between menses) or secondary amenorrhea (cessation of menstrual cycles for at least 3 months) caused by intense athletic training or disordered eating behavior. (pg 131) Stedman’s 9. Axial skeleton: articulated bones of head and vertebral column, i.e., head and trunk, as opposed to the appendicular skeleton, the articulated bones of the upper and lower limbs. (pg 147) Stedman’s 10.
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