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Bio notes Feb 1 send to Vanessa - Biology 1010 Friday...

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Biology 1010 Friday, 2/1/2008 Functional groups are the chemically reactive groups of atoms within an organic molecule. They give organic molecules distinctive chemical properties. Form determines function. There are 6 functional groups that are important in the chemistry of life. ( slides in eCompanion) They are all hydrophilic so increase the solubility of organic compounds in water 1. Hydroxyl (-OH) 2. Carbonyl (C=O) 3. Carboxyl (--COOH) 4. Amino (-NH 2 ) 5. Sulfhydryl (-SH) 6. Phosphate (PO 4 -) Hydroxyl group In a hydroxyl group, a hydrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom. The oxygen atom, in turn, is bonded to the carbon skeleton of the organic molecule. o Ex. Ethan ol , the alcohol present in alcoholic beverages- called “alcohols” and names usually end in ‘ ol o Functional properties: -OH is polar because O is electronegative; attracts H 2 O so dissolves organic molecules like sugars. Carbonyl Group (pronounced carbon-eel) The carbonyl group (>C) consists of a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond. o Ex. Carbonyl group within a carbon skeleton (acetone) o Carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton. (propanal) Carboxyl Group When an oxygen atom is double-bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl group, the entire assembly of atoms is called a carboxyl group (--COOH)
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