Chapter Atomic Orbitals Quantums - Chem I

# Chapter Atomic Orbitals Quantums - Chem I - A Radial...

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A Radial Probability Distribution of Apples

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Quantum Numbers n l m l Allowed Values 1 2 3 4 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 1 2 3 0 0 -1 0 +1 0 -1 0 +1 0 -1 0 +1 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3
Determining Quantum Numbers for an Energy Level Problem: What values of the azimuthal ( l ) and magnetic ( m l ) quantum numbers are allowed for a principal quantum number (n) of 4? How many orbitals are allowed for n=4? Plan : We determine the allowable quantum numbers by the rules given in the text. Solution : The l values go from 0 to (n-1), and for n=3 they are: l = 0,1,2,3. The values for m go from - l to zero to + l For l = 0, m l = 0…. .s sublevel l = 1, m l = -1, 0, +1…. .p sublevel l = 2, m l = -2, -1, 0, +1, +2….d sublevel l = 3, m l = -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3….f sublevel

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Radial probability “Accurate” “Stylized” Combined area distribution representation of the 2p of the three 2p of the 2p distribution orbitals: 2p x , 2p y distribution and 2p z orbitals

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Electron Configurations: Noble Gases 1s 2 2 He 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 10 Ne Electron Orbitals # Electrons Element 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 18 Ar 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 36 Kr 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 54 Xe 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 6p 6 86 Rn 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 6p 6 7s 2 5f 14 6d 10 ?
He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn Zn Cu Cd Hg Ag Au Ni Pd Pt Co Rh Ir Fe Ru Os Mn Tc Re Cr Mo W V Nb Ta Ti Zr Hf Sc Y La Ac The Periodic Table of the Elements “ S” Orbitals “ P” Orbitals “ f ” Orbitals Rf Ha Electronic Structure F Cl Br I At O S Se Te Po N P As Sb Bi C Si Ge Sn Pb B Al Ga In Tl H Li Be NaMg K Ca Rb Sr Cs Ba Fr Ra “ d” Orbitals Ce Pr Nd Sg PmSmEuGd Tb DyHo ErTm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np PuAmCm Bk Cf Es FmMd NoLr

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He 1s 2 n = 1 l = 0 m l = 0 m s = + 1/ 2 n = 1 l = 0 m l = 0 m s = - 1/ 2 Li 1s 2 2s 1 n = 1 l = 0 m l = 0 m s = + 1/ 2 n = 1 l = 0 m l = 0 m s = - 1/ 2 n = 2 l = 0 m l = 0 m s = - 1/ 2
Orbital Diagrams - I H Be Element Symbol Electron Orbital Diagrams Configuration Hydrogen H 1s 1 Helium He 1s 2 Lithium Li 1s 2 2s 1 Beryllium Be 1s 2 2s 2 1s 1s 1s 1s 2s 2s 2s 2s

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Hund’s Rule For an atom in its ground-state configuration, all unpaired electrons have the same spin orientation. Therefore electrons tend to occupy all free orbitals and not pair up, so that their spins all add up to produce a general vector for the atom.
Orbital Occupancy for the First 10 Elements, H through Ne Fig. 8.6

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Orbital Diagrem : B Ne B (5 e - ) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z C (6 e - ) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 N (7 e - ) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 O (8 e - ) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 F (9 e - ) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 Ne (10 e - ) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z
Valence and Core Electrons Valence Electrons - Those electrons outside of a closed electron shell. These electrons take part

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## This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor Farahh during the Spring '02 term at UNC.

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Chapter Atomic Orbitals Quantums - Chem I - A Radial...

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